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Amaurosis: symptoms and treatment
Amaurosis: symptoms and treatment

Eye amaurosis is a pathological condition associated with severe visual impairment, which quickly turns into complete blindness for no apparent reason. Studies prove that the disease can be inherited or develops against the background of pathologies of the central nervous system and its functional disorders.

Signs of the onset of the disease

Amaurosis is divided into separate types.

These include:

  • hereditary form;
  • transient;
  • transitory.

It should be noted that this ailment is one of the pathologies of the nervous system, respectively, neurologists are engaged in treatment and prevention. Regardless of the type, the signs of the disease are always the same and manifest themselves as the development of blindness in both one and both eyes.

The presence of a hereditary form of the disease is characterized by mutations in the genes responsible for the retina. As a result of these changes, the synthesis of rhodopsin is disrupted and, as a result, the flow of nerve impulses to the optic nerve is disrupted.

It is important to note that pathology can manifest itself only if genes with pathology are found in two parents.

Types of the disease and their features

Leber's amaurosis is diagnosed in infancy in children with certain signs:

  • The kid does not react to objects brought to him;
  • The eyes are constantly moving independently of each other;
  • There is no reaction of the pupil to light;
  • The baby's gaze is constantly wandering;
  • Sluggish or completely absent response to light sources.

Many children develop strabismus, sometimes the cornea can become convex, resembling a cone. In sufficiently bright light, these children may experience some improvement in vision.

Parents should identify the disease in their child as early as possible, since at this age he himself is not able to complain of poor eyesight. Therefore, it is necessary to constantly observe the baby, monitor how he reacts to toys, how he fixes his gaze on objects. It is also worth paying attention to possible oddities in the movement of the eyes.

With the rapid development of the disease, vision deteriorates gradually, but by the age of ten it disappears completely.

Due to various manifestations on the part of various vital organs, it can be quite difficult to immediately correctly diagnose the disease and identify Leber's amaurosis in time. The study of the fundus in most cases with this disease does not show pathologies; with a long and neglected course, the process can worsen and lead to one hundred percent blindness.

Transient amaurosis can disappear and appear again. The main symptom of this disease is vascular damage to the central nervous system. In this case, after eliminating the cause, vision is restored. In addition to blindness, an adult complains of frequent headaches, partial numbness in the legs or arms, spots in front of the eyes and loss of consciousness.

Transient-type blindness occurs in the form of loss of vision for a short time, in one eye or in two at once. The reasons may be disturbances in the process of blood circulation in the retina or sudden flashes of bright light.

The reasons for the development of the disease

Short-term complete or partial blindness can occur against the background of the following pathologies:

  • Change in the shape of blood vessels;
  • The appearance of formations or tumors that interfere with normal blood circulation;
  • Injuries;
  • Dysplasia, aneurysm, vascular atherosclerosis;
  • Vascular embolism.

However, the most common causes of eye amaurosis are considered to be the absence of photoreceptors and pigment cells that are responsible for perception.

The diagnosis can be made using a special microscope. In the course of the study, existing unfavorable changes in the structure of cones and rods, the presence of spots, unwanted changes in photoreceptors and other causes of the manifestation of the disease are revealed.

How to treat?

In order to correctly diagnose and prescribe the appropriate treatment, a thorough diagnosis should be carried out. To begin with, the patient must be examined and anamnesis taken. In the process of diagnostics, the fundus of the patient is examined, the quality of vision is checked, and visual reflexes are taken into account. It is necessary to pass a general blood test and biochemistry. In special cases, the doctor may also prescribe genetic tests.

The disease is hereditary, so there is no specific treatment. With the manifestation of the disease, certain disorders appear in the nervous and endocrine systems.

Inherited diseases cannot be cured, so the prognosis is usually poor. However, parents can prevent the problem from occurring. To do this, it is necessary to make an examination of the woman at the earliest stages of pregnancy. If the diagnosis of the fetus is confirmed, termination of the pregnancy is usually recommended.

Partial blindness is a temporary loss of vision, which usually lasts no more than five to ten minutes. There is no special treatment in this case. Patients are usually prescribed glasses and other means for correcting vision, while the main visual function must be preserved.

Treatment of a transient type of amaurosis of the eyes is possible with the use of special drugs - antihypertensive and fibrinolytic. If symptoms of coronary artery disease are observed with this type of blindness, surgery may sometimes be necessary in the area of the carotid artery. This operation in many cases helps to avoid a stroke.

Prevention of the development of the disease

As a preventive measure for the occurrence of passing blindness, you should constantly and correctly monitor your own health. It is necessary to undergo medical examinations at least once a year, avoid any head injuries, bad habits, carefully follow all the recommendations of the attending physician, in no case should you self-medicate.

A correct lifestyle, healthy and nutritious nutrition and the necessary physical activity, including on the eyes, help protect your health and protect the body from diseases.

However, with Leber's amaurosis, there are no preventive measures. At the same time, parents can be advised to prevent the onset of the disease. To do this, during pregnancy planning, you should undergo all special examinations and carry out genetic diagnostics. Only these measures will help reduce the risk of illness in the unborn baby.

With the timely elimination of the causes that provoked the onset of the transient form of amaurosis, and appropriate treatment, the prognosis for later life can be quite favorable. A professionally selected method can restore lost vision completely and prevent the possibility of recurrence of such conditions.

Congenital amaurosis is usually untreated and has poor prognosis. However, everything may depend on the rate of loss of vision and its initial acuity. Sometimes vision can be preserved, but not in full, and complete blindness can be avoided.

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