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Adenocarcinoma of the stomach
Adenocarcinoma of the stomach
Anonim

Adenocarcinoma of the stomach is a malignant neoplasm that belongs to the group of epithelial tumors. This disease has recently been diagnosed more often and it is important to get treatment on time in order to alleviate symptoms and save life.

Forms and types of gastric adenocarcinoma

Gastric adenocarcinoma has several classifications. According to Bormann's classification, neoplasms in the stomach are divided into five types and four subspecies:

The five main types of adenocarcinoma are:

  • Polyposis or restricted type;
  • Ulcerative with extended external borders;
  • Pseudo ulcerative (in terms of tissue changes, it is similar to a stomach ulcer);
  • Diffuse type;
  • Unclassified type of stomach cancer.

Four subspecies:

  • Papillary adenocarcinoma - grows inside the stomach cavity and is formed from the papillary structures of the epithelium, the shape is finger-shaped.
  • Tubular adenocarcinoma - formed from branched or cystic-enlarged structures.
  • Mucous adenocarcinoma - characterized by the presence of mucus in the area of the malignant process, which is noticeable during gastroscopy.
  • Cricoid cell tumor - isolated cells affect the walls of the trunk of the stomach.

By the type of structure, three types of formations are distinguished:

  • Highly differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma is a formation, whose cells are little distinguishable from healthy ones. The treatment process proceeds favorably with great chances for a full recovery;
  • Poorly differentiated form of adenocarcinoma - the disease has a poor prognosis, since there is a high likelihood of early development of metastases. The structure of education does not depend on the specifics of the tissues in which it is located;
  • Moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma - the tumor is characterized by a large number of atypical cells in comparison with the highly differentiated form;
  • Poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma - a formation in which glandular complexes are practically absent;
  • Undifferentiated adenocarcinoma is a tumor with pronounced malignancy of atypical cells. The course and outcome of the disease are unfavorable.

Stomach cancer symptoms

The danger of adenocarcinoma of the stomach lies in the fact that it proceeds moderately and imperceptibly, and this does not allow in most cases to determine it in the early stages.

There are symptoms that you should pay attention to in time and consult a doctor:

  • stool change,
  • changes in eating habits,
  • weight loss,
  • pain in the stomach
  • exhaustion,
  • peritonitis, etc.

Reasons for the appearance of education

Most often, the disease occurs as a result of a pronounced violation of the blood supply and nutrition of the walls, as well as inhibition of secretion in the organ. These changes are mainly caused by the carcinogenic effect of certain substances.

The main causes of adenocarcinoma:

  • The negative effect of tobacco tar and ethyl alcohol. Cancer is often diagnosed in people who smoke and drink alcohol for a long time;
  • Improper diet increases the risk of disease. Abuse of fatty, smoked and salty foods negatively affects the state of the mucous membrane, which provokes a change in normal glandular cells to atypical ones;
  • Many girls follow strict diets for a long time, which leads to the fact that the body does not receive enough fiber, vitamins, minerals and other useful substances.

Scientists believe that moderately differentiated and other forms of adenocarcinoma also occur in people with a genetic predisposition. The likelihood of developing cancer increases the presence of gastritis, ulcers and polyps. According to statistics, most patients with this problem live in places with poor ecology and their age is more than 50 years.

Diagnostic methods

If a person seeks a doctor with symptoms that are similar to adenocarcinoma, then he is assigned an examination in order to correctly diagnose.

In most cases, carry out:

  • Esophagogastroduodenoscopy. This is the most informative method that makes it possible to determine the existing changes in the stomach cavity. It also allows you to take material to make a histological analysis;
  • X-ray. Thanks to the use of a contrast agent, it is possible to determine where the formation is located, and it also reveals disturbances in the peristalsis of the stomach;
  • Ultrasound. This method is used to detect the presence of cancerous processes in other organs and the lymphatic system;
  • Computed tomography. The modern diagnostic method conducts a layer-by-layer scan of the body. With its help, you can determine the primary focus and secondary changes;
  • Blood test. To make a prognosis, the analysis makes it possible to identify the inflammatory process and signs of anemia. Tumor markers indicate a malignant process.

The doctor selects therapy, taking into account the characteristics of the course of the disease.

Conservative treatment methods

Therapeutic methods are used to reduce tumor growth, as well as to prevent further spread of mutated cells to internal organs and tissues:

  • Chemotherapy. It is also used as an independent treatment if the operation is impossible. The dosage of drugs is calculated by the doctor, based on the course of the pathology and the patient's condition. The most commonly used are Ftorafur, Capecitabine, Methotrexate;
  • Immunotherapy. Funds are needed to increase the body's resistance. This direction is insufficiently studied, but good results are shown by such vaccines as nivolumab, pembrolizumab;
  • Radiotherapy - with contraindications and an operable solution, this direction can also become the main one. As a rule, it is used at a late stage to reduce the size of the neoplasm and alleviate symptoms.

The most effective method is surgery, which not only removes infected cells or the organ itself, but also possible obstacles to the passage of food.

Surgical treatment of gastric adenocarcinoma

This method is the most common. During the operation, the affected area of the organ, nearby tissues, and lymph nodes are removed. With extensive lesions, complete excision of the organ with the esophagus and part of the intestine is performed. In this case, the rest of the esophagus is connected to the intestine, which allows the digestive tract to function. However, throughout life, the patient will have to adhere to a sparing diet.

Nowadays, laparoscopy is often performed - an operation in which an incision does not need to be made. Instruments are inserted through punctures, the course of the procedure is monitored using a monitor.

Treatment of adenocarcinoma with folk remedies

For the treatment of adenocarcinoma of the stomach, traditional medicine is also used. They help to remove symptoms, but they are not a panacea and conservative treatment prescribed by a doctor cannot be dispensed with.

Calendula

The plant has a choleretic and analgesic effect, and it also reduces swelling and slows down the growth of malignant cells. A tincture of flowers is used, for which it is necessary to soak the flowers in 90% alcohol, taking into account the ratio of 1: 5. It is necessary to take the tincture by diluting it in water, 5-10 drops three times a day;

Sagebrush

For treatment, this herb is used, which has antiviral and antimicrobial effects. A tincture is used, which is prepared from the ground part of the wormwood. Take 1 teaspoon of dry herb and pour boiling water over it. Insist for half an hour, and then strain. Take 3-4 times daily before meals;

Plantain

If you have stomach problems, then you can use this plant, which has anti-inflammatory, antiseptic and wound healing effects. Plantain also helps to cleanse the blood and has a positive effect on the secretory function of the organ.

For treatment, juice is used, for which it is necessary to grind plantain and mix in a jar in equal proportions with granulated sugar. The container is placed in a warm place and from time to time pressed down with a wooden spoon. It is important that the juice formed on the surface does not ferment. The juice is kept for 10 days, and then it is squeezed out and stored in the refrigerator. Take juice for treatment 3-4 times a day for 1 tbsp. spoon before meals. For the entire course of treatment, it is necessary to prepare 3-5 cans of chopped plantain with sugar;

Celandine

Root juice is used, which has an antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory and choleretic effect. To prepare the product, it is necessary to grind the root and squeeze the juice out of it, and then mix it with water in equal proportions. It should be infused for three weeks. First, you need to take a drop per day, adding it to 50 ml of water. Gradually, the amount should be brought to 20 drops. It is important to constantly monitor your well-being, since celandine juice is poisonous;

Burdock

For the treatment of stomach-related problems, this herb is used, which inhibits the growth of malignant tumors.

There are several ways to use the plant:

  • The roots are grated and consumed raw. You can only use a young, spring burdock;
  • The roots are used in alcohol and water tinctures;
  • Decoctions of plant inflorescences are also used, brewing them like ordinary tea.

Adenocarcinoma of the stomach - prognosis

Depending on the progression of the disease, several stages are distinguished, on which the prognosis depends:

  • Stage 0. The neoplasm concerns only the mucous membrane and recovery occurs in 90% of cases;
  • Stage 1. The tumor invades the lymph nodes and as for the prognosis, in this case it is 60-80%;
  • Stage 2. The formation grows into the muscle layers of the stomach, which reduces the chances of recovery to 30-40%;
  • Stage 3. In the organ, the entire thickness of the walls is affected and metastases penetrate into the lymph nodes. The forecast is deplorable and amounts to only 10-20%;
  • Stage 4. The spread of metastases can be defeated in rare cases and the chances of survival are minimal - 5%.

Preventive measures

To protect yourself from the development of the disease, you must lead a healthy lifestyle and eat right, giving up fatty, salty, etc. Eliminate bad habits from your life. It is important to consider that if there are stomach problems, they must be treated in time, since they can become an impetus for the formation of problem cells.

Now you know what gastric adenocarcinoma is and what prognosis can be traced at different stages. Monitor your health and see your doctor at the first unpleasant symptoms.

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