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Vision in newborns: when is established
Vision in newborns: when is established

The birth of a child is always a great joy. A baby born into the world cannot but touch the hearts of others. Peering into their own face, parents begin to recognize familiar features, signal their presence, and get to know a new person.

However, the baby needs time to get used to new conditions. Having been in the twilight for 9 months, he tries to cover his eyes in the light.

This state gradually passes, and the baby begins to calmly react to the environment, looking at the world with wide eyes. Vision in newborns has a number of features. They see indistinctly, without dwelling on any object for a long time. Especially if he is closer or farther than 25 cm from their eyes. Large objects and the human face attract particular attention.

Due to the peculiarities of the anatomical structure of the eye apparatus, babies mainly distinguish only black and white colors.

The ability to recognize shades appears only by 2-3 months of age. Weakness of the muscular system can lead to slight squint, however, as newborns develop visual organs, this symptom goes away on its own.

Newborn vision: stages of development

Vision in infants is finally formed and becomes like in adults only by the age of 7 years, and up to this point, a period of development and formation of all systems of the ocular apparatus precedes.

The most important and rapid processes take place in the first year of life.

  • Vision in newborns at 1 month is characterized by the lack of the ability to use both eyes at the same time. The pupils can be directed in different directions. Also, the ability to fix a gaze on objects has not yet been developed. Everything is seen vaguely. The colors are indistinguishable.
  • At 8 weeks, vision is focused, children learn to follow the movement of an object. Due to the development of the central part of the retina, the ability to distinguish between red and yellow shades appears. As the nervous and muscular systems develop, the eyes begin to move at the same time. You can give to consider photographs, pictures.
  • At week 12, the processes of tracking the object are gradually activated, making it possible for a short time to follow the surrounding objects.
  • At 16 weeks, a sense of depth appears, spatial vision develops, the ability to determine the distance to an object, its size and shape appears. The kid can easily reach the toy and grab it.
  • At week 20, children become aware of the constancy of objects. They begin to understand that if something is hidden, it does not mean that the item no longer exists. You can already play hide and seek.
  • At 24 weeks, the perception of green and blue shades appears. The kid easily distinguishes the shape of objects, people, distance to objects.
  • At 32 weeks, a child's perception is characterized by almost the same depth and acuity as that of adults. The perception of different colors is activated.

At 1 year old, the perception of the world around them allows children to actively participate in all its processes. They can easily distinguish the shape, color, distance to the object, and can track its movement. Preferences for toys appear.

These periods are not a strict criterion for the development of vision in children. During the first year, small adjustments in one direction or another are possible.

This may depend on individual characteristics, heredity, as well as possible pathological phenomena.

Vision in premature newborns

Babies born before 37 weeks are considered premature. They automatically fall into the risk zone for the occurrence of dangerous eye diseases that can lead to blindness. The most common pathology is retinopathy, when the vessels of the eyes are affected, leading to a deterioration in the nutrition of the retina, damage to the optic nerve. It is also possible the appearance of increased intraocular pressure, myopia and other dangerous pathologies.

It should also be noted that the formation of the visual apparatus in such children is often delayed. Due to the underdevelopment of the eye tissues, it is difficult for them to adapt to the environment. Therefore, after the birth of the child, they are placed in a special incubator, where favorable conditions are created for the formation of the organism.

In order not to miss the incipient pathological process, the vision of children must be examined by a specialist. Even if all is well, a doctor's consultation will not be superfluous. Indeed, at an early stage of the disease, treatment is much easier and more effective.

How to check vision in a newborn

There are a number of signs by which the quality of perception in newly born is determined.

These include:

  • Checking the reaction of the pupils to light. If they narrow, then there is no blindness.
  • Closing the eyelids when the object is quickly approaching the face also indicates the absence of blindness. True, such a reflex can only be tested after 8-12 weeks of life.
  • An active reaction to the appearance of the mother in the field of vision also indicates good vision.
  • It is necessary to observe whether the baby fixes its gaze on objects, whether it follows them. This can only be verified 8 weeks after birth.
  • The mobility of the eyeballs is checked. Can they move in different directions at the same time? This can also be tested after 8 weeks of life.
  • At one year old, the doctor can already check the refraction of the eyes, that is, the ability to correctly reflect what is seen on the retina of the eye. Before this, the baby is instilled with a solution that dilates the pupils. The condition of the eyelids is assessed using a retinoscope. It should be noted that the norm of vision equal to one is established only by 6-7 years.

The first examination is carried out in the hospital, then after 3 months, 6 months and a year. If any violations are detected, the child, as a rule, is put under control, an individual examination schedule and appropriate treatment are prescribed.

When to sound the alarm?

There are suspicious symptoms in which a visit to a doctor is urgent.

These include:

  • Sluggish reaction to object movements.
  • Lack of gaze fixation.
  • Persistent squint.
  • Redness of the inner corner of the eyelids, the presence of purulent discharge.
  • Different pupil sizes.
  • Descent of the century.

These phenomena are not always signs of a serious illness. However, in order to find out the cause and prevent further progression of the condition, timely assistance from specialists is needed.

Vision in babies has its own characteristics that need to be known and understood. As the baby's eye apparatus is formed and strengthened, they should be helped to develop their abilities through games and correct behavior. This is especially important if the baby was born prematurely.

In addition, you need to monitor the diet, enriching food with all the useful substances necessary not only for the eyelids, but also for the whole organism. Regular preventive medical examinations, as well as the vigilance of parents, significantly reduce the risk of eye problems.

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