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What determines visual acuity?
What determines visual acuity?

Visual acuity is the ability to clearly distinguish between small objects located next to each other. It can be measured using a special table containing letters or symbols. The indicator of the quality of vision is expressed in numerical value.

The rate corresponds to one. In this case, a person can make out the tenth row of the table at a distance of 5 meters. Over the years or for a number of reasons, this indicator can change for the worse, which cannot but cause concern. After all, visual impairment significantly affects the quality of life, causing considerable discomfort.

Sometimes a progressive process leads to the fact that it is difficult to discern the price tag in the store, correctly count the money or recognize a familiar face.

The advanced stages of the disease do not lend themselves to conservative treatment, only their correction is possible. Therefore, it is very important to contact a specialist in a timely manner.

It is necessary to carry out a complete diagnosis of the eye apparatus and find out the true reasons why there is a decrease in visual acuity. It is possible that an examination of the whole organism will be required.

Decreased visual acuity causes

Deterioration in the clarity of seeing objects can be caused by conditions such as:

  • Eye fatigue. This condition often occurs when working with a computer for a long time, reading in poor lighting, lack of sleep, and nervous strain. The well-known expert William Bates was generally of the opinion that the cause of all vision problems is stress.
  • Curvature of the spinal column, trauma, childbirth, as well as osteochondrosis of the cervical spine often lead to poor posture, compression of nerve fibers, vascular bundles.
  • Diseases of the eyes, as well as injuries, carry the risk of complications in the form of deterioration in the quality of vision. Diseases of the retina, cornea, and lens are especially dangerous.
  • The presence of such pathologies as myopia, hyperopia, strabismus, astigmatism, increased intraocular pressure are predisposing factors for a decrease in clarity.
  • Dysfunction of the thyroid gland, as well as the presence of diabetes mellitus can also be a source of eye problems.
  • Previously transferred infectious and viral diseases can leave a mark in the form of a fuzzy perception of objects.
  • Constant exposure to toxic and irritating substances can lead to a lack of vigilance.

The perception of objects is often inherited. It should also be remembered that the aging process cannot but affect the eye apparatus. A decrease in the elasticity of the vascular wall, narrowing of the lumen, concomitant diseases, destruction of the photosensitive pigment of the retina contribute to the appearance of alarming symptoms.


Features of therapy depend on the severity of the condition, concomitant diseases, the presence of certain contraindications, age. The earlier the necessary measures are taken, the better the prognosis of recovery and the less aggressive methods of exposure are required.

If visual acuity deteriorates, it is recommended to reduce eye strain.

The diet should be enriched with foods that contain beneficial ingredients for the eyes, for example:

  • Carrots are rich in vitamins and minerals that improve the functioning of the cells of the eye apparatus.
  • Blueberry normalizes blood flow to cells, relieves inflammation, inhibits age-related changes, and improves visual acuity. It is also an excellent means of preventing clouding of the lens of the eye, increasing intraocular pressure.
  • Apricots help those who see poorly in the evening, strengthen the blood vessels of the eyes.
  • Oranges are able to relieve eyelid fatigue, improve visual acuity.
  • Beetroot also helps to relieve eyelid fatigue, improve vigilance.
  • Spinach is especially useful due to the content of lutein in it, which inhibits age-related processes, and is also the prevention of lens clouding and increased intraocular pressure.
  • Fish helps to strengthen the oculomotor muscles, normalize cell nutrition.
  • Milk contributes to a brighter perception of objects, improved vision in the evening.

If it is not possible to eat fresh food, then vitamin preparations are prescribed, which can be purchased at the pharmacy without a prescription. The course of therapy is individual.

In addition to nutrition, special eye exercises are often used. A complex of simple exercises, performed regularly, several times a day, trains the oculomotor muscles, relieves fatigue and tension.

To improve visual acuity, you can do the following exercises:

  • Close your eyes, hold for 2 seconds, then open your eyelids. Do 3 sets.
  • Blink quickly for 10 seconds.
  • Select a point on the window, look at it for 5 seconds, then look into the distance for 5 seconds. Repeat 8 times.
  • Place the index finger at arm's length. Then gradually bring it closer to the nose, linger for 2 seconds and return it back. Repeat 3 times.
  • Reproduce movements with the eyes to the right - left, up - down, diagonally, then rotate clockwise and back. Do 2-3 approaches.

There is also a special Bates technique, the principle of which is based on the complete relaxation of vision.

Before using any gymnastics, you should consult a doctor, since in some cases it is contraindicated.

It is also necessary to follow the precautionary rules, namely:

  • Choose a comfortable position, the back should be straight;
  • Exercise should be regular;
  • You can't overwork.

If the pathological process does not respond to treatment, then glasses are prescribed to alleviate the condition.

It is necessary to deal with the treatment of the underlying disease, which may require the use of various medications and procedures.

In severe cases, in the presence of myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism or strabismus, laser vision correction is performed.

However, it should be remembered that this therapy is not suitable for everyone. With diabetes mellitus, pregnancy, breastfeeding, high intraocular pressure, clouding of the lens, inflammatory processes, diseases of the cornea, it is contraindicated.


To maintain healthy vision, it is necessary to avoid overwork, excessive physical exertion, be sure to take breaks when working with a computer. Enough 10 minutes for each hour. If any of the relatives suffers from eye diseases, it is recommended to undergo annual preventive examinations.

Leading a healthy lifestyle has a positive effect on all internal organs and systems, including the eyes. Rational nutrition, lack of stress, prolonged sleep work wonders. Performing special gymnastics for the eyelids helps relieve muscle spasms. It is also known that sports such as swimming, walking, running, and ice skating have a positive effect on visual acuity.

Timely treatment of diseases that can negatively affect the eyelids can significantly reduce the risk of eye problems. When the first unfavorable signs appear, you can not wait for the deterioration of the condition, you should immediately consult a doctor. In the initial stages of the disease, the process is completely reversible.

Decreased visual acuity is not a sentence. A careful attitude to your health will allow you to stop the pathological process, and in some cases completely eliminate it. The main thing is to have a positive attitude and clearly follow all the recommendations of specialists.

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