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The iris of the eye is the "apple of the eye"
The iris of the eye is the "apple of the eye"

The iris is part of the eye "mechanism". It is located between the lens and the anterior wall of the choroid. The formation of an opaque consistency has a circular surface with a black dot inside, which is called the pupil.

Basically, this "mechanism" consists of a pair of muscle groups that affect the constriction and dilation of the pupil. The iris is made up of pigment cells called melanin, the intensity of which characterizes the color spectrum of the eyelids.

In newborns, it is usually blue, but after 6 months, as the amount of pigment increases, the formation takes on the color inherent in the genes.

If there is not enough pigment in the body, then the iris will be colorless. People with this phenomenon are called albinos.

In most cases, the color of both eyes is the same, however, there are cases of heterochromia when the eyes are different colors. In ancient times, it was believed that such people have supernatural powers.

Much time has passed since then, but the feature has not ceased to be less mysterious. Despite the fact that the phenomenon itself does not affect the quality of vision, it is considered a deviation from the norm. You should be aware that heterochromia can be one of the symptoms of such hereditary diseases as pigment dispersion syndrome, Waardenburg's syndrome, Fuchs's syndrome, and also occur in the form of complications after eye injuries. People with heterochromia should undergo regular medical examinations for the timely detection of a serious pathological process.

The structure of the iris

The surface consists of a borderline, stromal and pigment-muscular layer. At the peak are the mesentery, which is called the "Krause circle", which divides the surface into the outer ciliary and inner pupillary.

In the area of the pupil, between the mesentery and the edge, there is a brown border, followed by the sphincter and vascular formations.

Along the edges of the "Krause circle" on the ciliary surface there are gaps, which are located between the vessels and resemble bicycle spokes. They are arranged randomly and depend on the distribution of the vessels. Also, there you can find various grooves that appear due to changes in the size of the pupils.

The thickness of the rainbow fabric ranges from 0.2 to 0.4 mm. The densest surface is closer to the pupil. At the edges, the density decreases.

Iris function

The main function of the iris is to protect the retina from excessive leakage of light rays. This allows you to maintain a constancy of the environment affecting the eyes. So, in the twilight, the pupils become wider, and in bright light, they narrow. Dilators (those that dilate the pupils) and sphincters (those that constrict the pupils) are responsible for the successful performance of the regulator function.

The iris has a lot to say about a person's health. Iridology allows you to identify the presence of the disease on the basis of only dashes, lines, circles that appear on the iris with age.

Based on this method, one can suspect lesions of the spine, stomach, heart, organs of the reproductive system, a tendency to mental illness, and also assess the state of the body's protective properties.

The method allows you to identify an emerging pathology when other modern diagnostic tools are not informative. Iridology is considered an unconventional method of diagnosis, therefore it is used as an aid.

Causes of the pathology of the membrane of the eye

Tissue damage can occur due to exposure to pathogenic microorganisms circulating through the blood vessels and capillaries or from outside. Inflammation occurs in the form of complications of diseases such as rheumatism, inflammatory processes in the joints, herpetic manifestations, diabetes mellitus, the presence of tuberculosis or syphilis. This can be caused by traumatic events, exposure to chemicals or high temperatures.

Any inflammatory process is called iritis. If only the ciliary body is affected, that is, part of the choroid of the eye, then this process is called "iridocyclitis". If the entire surface is affected, then the disease is called "uveitis".

It is also possible the presence of congenital or acquired pathologies associated with improper formation of pupils, the absence of an iridescent surface, tissue stratification, etc.


The pathological process manifests itself in the form of the appearance of unbearable pain, lacrimation, intolerance to light rays, a decrease in vision clarity, and headache. Outwardly, you can notice a crimson tint of the eyeball, deformation of the pupil, as well as a change in the color of the iris.

If any of the suspicious symptoms occur, you should immediately contact a specialist. Early treatment will help prevent the development of severe complications that can lead to visual impairment and even loss of vision.


To make the correct diagnosis, the specialist conducts an external examination, identifies complaints.

Using a microscope, a detailed examination of the surface of the eye is carried out.

Pupillometry measures the diameter of the pupil. Examination of the vascular surface is performed using fluorescent angiography. The method is a contrast study of blood vessels.

An accurate diagnosis allows you to determine an effective and fast way of therapy.


Damage to the iris of the eye is a serious condition that requires constant medical supervision. Therefore, treatment is often carried out in a hospital setting. To get rid of unpleasant symptoms, as a rule, agents for topical use are prescribed, namely drops, ointments containing anti-inflammatory components.

Compulsory treatment of the underlying disease that caused the eye disease is carried out. In this case, a special diet can be prescribed, the introduction of drugs intramuscularly or into the lesion focus, physiotherapy, therapeutic exercises, etc.

All medications and procedures are prescribed only by a doctor. In no case should you engage in self-medication.


In order to prevent the appearance of eye problems, you must be attentive to your health. Undergoing regular medical examinations allows you to identify dangerous symptoms at the onset of the disease and prevent their further development.

Strengthening the body with the help of therapeutic exercises, swimming, enriching the diet with vitamins that have a beneficial effect on the tissues of the eyes, can significantly reduce the risk of alarming signs. Timely therapy of exacerbation of chronic diseases avoids complications in the eye.

The eye iris has a huge impact on the normal functioning of the eye apparatus and the quality of vision. She is not only a source of information signaling diseases of internal organs, but also beauty. The presence of different color shades makes it unique, charming and memorable.

Any defeat of her leads not only to physical, but also to moral suffering. Therefore, if any adverse signs occur, you should immediately consult a doctor and strictly follow all his recommendations.

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