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2023 Author: Alfred Shackley | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-05-21 13:14
The gallbladder is an organ whose function is to maintain proper digestion by delivering bile; it is a kind of transition point between the liver and the stomach. Bile, entering the stomach, breaks down food products that enter the body, and this is how human digestion occurs.
Unfortunately, the gallbladder is susceptible to many diseases, such as gallstone disease or cholecystitis. There are various reasons for such problems. It can be heredity, unhealthy diet, age.
In any case, all these diseases are not fatal, since the gallbladder is not an organ without which existence is impossible. However, in case of ineffective treatment, the patient is referred for a procedure to remove the gallbladder - cholecystectomy.
Cholecystectomy is done in two ways, so it is of the following types:
Recently, the second method is gaining more and more popularity - a sparing operation on the gallbladder, laparoscopy. There are many reasons for this. However, before talking about the pros, it is worthwhile to figure out what the procedure itself and the preparation for it are.
Preparation for laparoscopic cholecystectomy
Preparation for this operation is standard.
A number of tests and hardware diagnostic methods are prescribed to the patient before the procedure:
- blood and urine tests;
- ultrasound examination;
- cardiogram of the heart;
- consultation with an anesthesiologist.
If a person has any additional chronic diseases, then it is necessary to draw a conclusion in this area as well.
Immediately before the procedure itself, the patient is forbidden to eat for twelve hours, he undergoes a cleansing enema or drinks laxatives, and stops taking medications indicated by the doctor.
Indications for laparoscopy of the gallbladder
This procedure is assigned in the following cases:
- chronic or acute cholecystitis;
- acalculous cholecystitis of acute type;
- bile duct disease (stones or inflammation);
- cholesterosis of the walls of the gallbladder;
- spasm of the sphincter of Oddi.
In some cases, despite the "softness" of the operation, it is prohibited. People with heart or kidney failure, lung disease or atrial fibrillation should not go under the knife.
How is laparoscopy performed on the gallbladder
The operation lasts an hour or two, depending on the severity of the disease. During this time, the patient is immersed in general anesthesia.
The classic version of laparoscopic cholecystectomy consists of four small incisions up to one centimeter. One incision is made in the navel, the other is made in the middle of the abdomen under the sternum, and the other two are made directly in the gallbladder. Special instruments, trocars, and a laparoscope are inserted into these incisions, and the abdominal cavity is filled with carbon dioxide.
A laparoscope is a mini video camera on a tube. Thanks to her, the surgeon and his assistants see on the monitor everything that happens inside the patient in an enlarged form. To make the "picture" better, carbon dioxide is used.
The surgeon, using a trocar, removes adhesions between the gallbladder and the muscles, if any, followed by the gallbladder, connects the ducts, “leaves” the instruments from the peritoneum and applies four small sutures.
Pros and cons of laparoscopic surgery
This method of removing the bladder in comparison with open surgery has a lot of advantages:
- Short rehabilitation period. After the operation, the patient can literally go home and continue life in the same rhythm, except for a few moments;
- Laparoscopy is a cosmetic type of surgery. If you do not want to see scars on your abdomen, then this type of surgery will be ideal. After a few months, practically no marks remain on the body;
- A painless way to remove the gallbladder. Painful sensations will accompany the operated person for only a few days;
- Complications are minimal. Compared to open cholecystectomy, this method has almost zero risk of inflammation and hernias.
Are there any downsides? Yes, but they have little to do with the procedure itself. For example, laparoscopy cannot be performed on all patients who require organ removal. The reasons for this are a large number of large stones in the organ, as well as suppuration. If the stones were identified by ultrasound by accident, then the procedure can be carried out.
There is one more disadvantage. This is a cost that ranges from 20 thousand rubles and more. However, if we consider that after the operation the patient rises immediately to his feet, then she fully pays for herself.
Rehabilitation after laparoscopy: the first period after gallbladder surgery and possible consequences
Rehabilitation takes place in a few days. In comparison, open organ harvesting takes two to three months for a person to feel healthy. Immediately after the procedure, the patient is transferred to a hospital, where he stays for a day or more, depending on the doctor's prescription. Within a week, the stitches are removed and a second examination is carried out.
For a period of up to two weeks, the former patient must adhere to a diet.
He is prohibited from eating the following foods:
- sour fruits;
- fatty foods;
- smoked meats;
- fried foods;
- fresh baked goods;
- carbonated drinks;
- all kinds of snacks.
The best diet is a diet known as table number 5. The basis of this menu is boiled or steamed vegetables, finely ground cereals, soups with chicken broth. From meat, boiled or stewed beef is allowed, cooked in the form of meatballs or cutlets, rabbit meat, chicken breast, lean fish.
In addition, the patient will have to spend some time without physical activity. The maximum weight that is allowed to be lifted is four kilograms, after which the weight and physical activity gradually increase. After a month, or even earlier, this restriction is lifted.
Recommendations after cholecystectomy
Any operation to remove an organ puts the patient in an exciting position. How will life change after organ removal? However, don't panic. Bile, as before, will flow through the ducts from the liver to the stomach, this will practically not affect digestion in any way.
Some scientists consider the gallbladder "extra" organ, like the appendix, but its loss will still force a person to adhere to proper nutrition in the future.
Eating right doesn't mean avoiding baked duck or a bottle of beer with barbecue. Such dishes simply should not linger on the table. Needless to say that such food is harmful for a healthy person, let alone the one who underwent removal of the gallbladder?
You should be especially careful with alcohol in the future. To preserve health, it is better to drink strong alcoholic drinks only on holidays and in small quantities. For most people, this is not a problem at all.
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, of course, does not go completely without a trace.
A small shift towards a healthy lifestyle, on the contrary, will only strengthen the body.
The procedure itself is a quick removal of the organ with little or no complication. After the procedure, the person continues to live his usual life in just a few days.