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Symptoms and treatment of biliary colic
Symptoms and treatment of biliary colic

Biliary colic is characterized by sharp pain in the right side and lasts from several minutes to an hour. The attack manifests itself unexpectedly and most often in the evening. The prognosis for timely treatment of biliary colic is favorable - complications occur only in rare cases.

Causes of the appearance of biliary colic

The main reason for the phenomenon is the presence of stones in the gallbladder. The stones linger in the ducts of the bladder, while the outflow of bile is disturbed. The most common provoking factor in the shift of stones is fatty, dense food.

This stimulates the production of bile and its outflow into the duodenum from the gallbladder, this leads to a shift of stones, which can get stuck in the duct at the exit from the organ in the area of the junction of the bile and main ducts of the pancreas (Vater papilla).

Also, the causes of pain include:

  • various disorders in the work of the biliary tract;
  • artificial nutrition for a long time;
  • an infection in the ducts and bladder that interferes with drainage.

The risk group includes:

  • female sex (twice as often);
  • age over 45;
  • overweight;
  • high blood cholesterol;
  • nordic type of people (with fair skin, hair).

The musculature of the duct walls often begins to contract, trying to squeeze the stone into the duodenum and overcome the obstacle to the normal outflow of bile. This strenuous work leads to the emergence of sharp pain in the right hypochondrium. Often, such efforts are justified and the stone gets into the intestines, but there are times when this does not happen and it has to be removed in other ways, up to medical intervention.

If the cause is not a stone, but, for example, a swelling of the bladder or its ducts, then the pain may not leave the patient for a very long time. When moving along the ducts, the stone can damage the mucous membrane and therefore, even after the stone has passed, the patient may feel an unpleasant sensation on the right side.

But only 15% of patients with stones in the bladder complain of colic. This means that not every person suffering from various pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract has them.

Signs and symptoms

The clinic of the state is of the same type. Let's note the main symptoms of biliary colic:

  • Pain in the right side, which is often intermittent, and can also be burning and intolerable. Their duration is from 10 minutes to 6 hours. In this case, they can be given to the scapula, right shoulder, back;
  • The onset of pain is sudden, more often in the evening or at night after a hearty dinner, the menu of which included fatty foods, as well as after severe emotional or physical fatigue;
  • The pain may be accompanied by nausea and vomiting, first food, then a mixture of gastric juice with bile;
  • A possible temperature rise of no more than 39 degrees, but such a symptom can quickly disappear, since it is more of a reflex nature;
  • If colic continues throughout the day, then there is the possibility of inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis);
  • Due to the fact that with colic, the outflow of bile is delayed, its pigments enter the bloodstream and the patient can notice the staining of the skin and the membranes of the eyes in yellow, in the dark color of urine, and the feces, on the contrary, become discolored;
  • Against the background of other symptoms, weakness, anxiety, a bitter taste in the mouth, lack of appetite, bloating, belching, diarrhea may occur;
  • Heart rate and blood pressure may rise and the skin becomes pale.

Most often, biliary colic goes away on its own, but sometimes it is she who can serve as a signal of disturbances in the gastrointestinal tract and the need to consult a doctor.

Urgent care for biliary colic

It is undesirable to get rid of an attack of biliary colic on your own, it is better if professional emergency assistance is provided.

How can you help yourself before the ambulance arrives:

  • Unbutton tight clothes, lie on your right side and try to relax;
  • Exclude food intake at this time. If you are thirsty, then it is better to quench it with plain water, and not coffee or tea, since these drinks provoke the production of bile, and this increases the pain syndrome;
  • Do not take strong painkillers without the advice of a doctor; in extreme cases, you can drink no more than one no-shpa pill;
  • Do not use a heating pad, as the pain is aggravated by the contraction of the ducts.

Treatment methods

After a number of diagnostic measures, the following treatment is prescribed:

  • Compliance with the dietary table 5A, on the first day, a complete refusal to eat;
  • Reception of antispasmodics that remove the spasm of the duct muscles: no-shpa intramuscularly or intravenously (2% 4 ml), then in tablets 4 times a day, 80 mg. Alternatively, platifillin is also prescribed intramuscularly or intravenously (0.2%, 2 ml), papaverine (2%, 2 ml), then in tablets of 50 g 3-4 times a day, a solution of atropine sulfate intramuscularly (0.1% - 1);
  • Removal of pain syndrome: analgin is taken intramuscularly (50% - 2), ketorol or ketorolac intramuscularly 2 times a day, baralgin 5 ml. If the painful spasms persist, then stronger painkillers are prescribed;
  • With increased acidity in the body, omeprazole is prescribed 2 times a day, 20 mg;
  • If the concomitant symptoms of biliary colic are nausea and vomiting, then the doctor prescribes treatment with metoclopramide 2 times a day, first 2 ml intramuscularly, then 10 mg tablets. Alternatively, you can use cerucal according to the same scheme;
  • Motilium is often prescribed 2 times a day at 40 mg to improve the motility of the gastrointestinal system;
  • To improve the protective functions, hepatoprotectors are used mainly in the form of Essentiale 3 times a day, 2 tablets.

After the pain is relieved, further treatment proceeds depending on the cause.

It is possible to alleviate the symptoms for a short time with folk remedies.

Folk remedies for biliary colic

  • At the first sign, dissolve a tablespoon of apple cider vinegar in 200 ml of apple juice. After that, the attack will subside, but not for long - for about a quarter of an hour;
  • During the week in the morning on an empty stomach, you need to drink the juice of 4 lemons, diluted with a glass of water. This will help remove the stones;
  • Terpenes - substances found in large quantities in peppermint - dissolve stones. A tablespoon of raw materials is steamed with a glass of boiling water and kept for 5 minutes. The infusion is filtered and mixed with a tablespoon of honey. Drink this remedy twice a day between meals for 4-6 weeks;
  • Dandelion's taraxacin improves the flow of bile from the liver, which helps to normalize the functionality of the gallbladder. Mixed with 2 teaspoons of roots in marshmallow, a teaspoon of holly Mahonia. Steam with 4 cups of boiling water and continue heating for 15 minutes. Remove from heat and add a teaspoon of mint and 2 teaspoons of dandelion to the broth. Insist for another quarter of an hour and filter. Drink during the day instead of tea;
  • Pears contain pectin, which softens stones. Cut the peel from the fruit, cut the pulp into small slices and boil them for 20 minutes. It is recommended to eat a plate of still warm boiled pears twice a day for 2 weeks.

Prevention of biliary colic

To prevent biliary colic from reoccurring, you need to consult a doctor in time for help, even if there is slight pain on the right side, as well as with changes in the functioning of the liver, gallbladder, pancreas or intestines.

When prescribing a certain treatment system, it is necessary to strictly follow it and follow all the doctor's recommendations.

Overweight plays an important role in the appearance of disorders that are associated with the outflow of bile, so it is necessary to go on a diet (as prescribed by a doctor).

It is important to monitor proper nutrition; large gaps between meals should not be allowed, as this contributes to the stagnation of bile. Keep track of what foods you include in your diet, it is advisable not to eat fatty, spicy or too salty foods.

Women who have gallbladder problems are not advised to take hormonal contraception.

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