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2023 Author: Alfred Shackley | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-05-21 13:14
Ultrasound - ultrasound is a non-invasive method for assessing the state of the body.
This diagnostic method is relatively young - despite the fact that the first ultrasonic flaw detector was developed by the Russian scientist S. Ya.
Sokolov, studies of neoplasms were first carried out in 1955, and only in 1970 in European countries these devices began to be equipped with medical institutions. In the post-Soviet space, ultrasound devices appeared only by the 90s, but after 20 years they began to equip not only medical centers, but also ordinary district polyclinics.
The patients are extremely lucky - these devices help to establish the diagnosis most accurately, especially if it is necessary to confirm the presence / absence of neoplasms and calculi in the abdominal cavity.
During an ultrasound examination of the gallbladder, you can find out the state of the organ, its ducts, the presence of calculi in them, and even determine how much the organ performs its functions. Usually, this examination is combined with an assessment of the condition of the liver and pancreas.
How to prepare for an ultrasound of the gallbladder and how to decipher the examination indicators in the future?
Indications and contraindications for ultrasound of the gallbladder
Examinations of this organ can be prescribed for the following patient complaints and conditions:
- feeling of heaviness or frequent pain in the right hypochondrium;
- bitterness in the mouth;
- discomfort and feeling tired after eating;
- dull skin tone and yellowing, yellowing of the sclera;
- deviations from the norm of ALaT, bilirubin and ASaT indices in the biochemical blood test;
- if you suspect cholelithiasis or biliary dyskinesia;
- after injuries in the abdominal cavity - closed and open;
- when eliminating intoxications of a different nature;
- suspicion of the presence of neoplasms;
- with unexplained obesity;
- for control in the treatment of the liver or pancreas;
- before prescribing certain medications, such as hormones or corticosteroids.
Some medications reduce the synthesis of bile and disrupt the function of the gallbladder, and if ultrasound is neglected, taking the medication can harm the patient's health.
There are very few contraindications for abdominal ultrasound: open wounds and abdominal burns. There is another contraindication that makes examination impossible - intolerance to a special gel that must be applied to the skin. Fortunately, this intolerance is extremely rare.
Preparation before ultrasound of the gallbladder
Often, an ultrasound of the abdominal cavity is done without any preparation - right during the appointment, the doctor goes with the patient to the office, where they assess the changes in the organ. A spontaneous examination is informative, but it is advisable to specially prepare for a more accurate identification of problems.
Just tune in to the procedure is not enough, preparation consists in correcting the diet. Already 2-3 days before it, you should stop eating foods that increase gas formation - muffins, products with yeast, legumes, fatty and fried foods, alcohol, sweets, carbonated drinks and even some fermented milk products - for example, kefir.
But this does not mean at all that you will have to starve. You can eat lean meat or fish, porridge on the water, soft-boiled eggs, low-fat cottage cheese.
To reduce gas formation, you can temporarily take anti-flatulence or enzyme preparations - "Smecta", "Espumisan", "Activated carbon" - better white coal, "Mezim" or "Pancreatin".
It is advisable to empty the intestines 2-3 hours before the procedure - if this cannot be done naturally, you need to resort to an enema. It is not necessary to completely empty the intestines, as before a colonoscopy - it is enough to get rid of the feeling of bloating. The ideal option is that at least 8 hours should pass from the last meal to the ultrasound scan, but if it is not possible to refuse breakfast, then the examination should be planned for lunchtime in order to withstand at least 4 hours.
Before the procedure, you should not chew gum, drink water, you must also refrain from using medications - if they do not support the basic functions of the body and the reception can be postponed.
Examination of the gallbladder should be carried out "on an empty stomach" - only in this case it is filled with bile and is perfectly visible. If bile secretion occurs, the gallbladder contracts and it is difficult to diagnose a dysfunction or the presence of neoplasms.
How is an ultrasound of the gallbladder done?
A routine examination is carried out as follows:
- the patient lies on his back;
- the doctor applies the gel to the upper abdomen and to the transducer head;
- the sensor is moved over the surface of the skin.
To accurately determine the state of the organ, the patient may be asked to roll over from side to side or make several tilts.
If an ultrasound examination is prescribed to determine the function, then the patient needs to take a "breakfast" with him to the office. (The second name of the procedure is echolecystography, diagnostics with choleretic load).
The initial examination is carried out in the same way as always - always on an empty stomach, but then you must certainly eat your choice:
- egg yolks - 2 or 3 (they can be boiled or raw);
- a glass of sour cream;
- 200 g of cottage cheese with sour cream.
You can drink a glass of sorbitol diluted with boiled water. After an impromptu breakfast, the procedure is repeated up to 3 times - after 15, 30 and 45 minutes.
The functions are described on the basis of changes in the width of the ducts, the contractility of the organ, and on the assessment of complaints of patients who tell how and how long after a meal their sensations change.
Deciphering the results of ultrasound
Assessment of the patient's condition is compared with the norm of the following indicators:
- the location of the organ, its mobility relative to other organs that are in the abdominal cavity;
- dimensions, shape and wall thickness - the norm for an adult:
- length - from 7 to 10 cm;
- width from 3 to 5 cm;
- thickness - 3-3.5 cm;
- wall thickness - 2-4 mm;
- the size of the common bile duct - the norm is 6-8 mm;
- the diameter of each of the lobar bile ducts is 2-3 mm.
Normally, the shape of the organ should be oval or pear-shaped, it should be clearly displayed on the monitor screen. A deviation from the edge of the liver by 1.5 cm is allowed.
The interpretation of the survey results is carried out on the basis of these data.
During the examination, you can see the presence of calculi in the bile ducts and the gallbladder itself, neoplasms, changes that lead to dysfunction.
What can an ultrasound of the gallbladder show?
Currently, the patient does not have to think about decoding the indicators that the doctor gave after the examination. After an ultrasound examination, it is possible to obtain an accurate diagnosis.
Using the procedure, you can diagnose:
- acute and chronic cholecystitis;
- increased blood flow in the cystic artery;
- deformation and thickening of the walls;
- gallstone disease;
- kink of the bile ducts;
- the presence of neoplasms and polyps;
- displacement of the organ from its place.
The presence of small stones can be judged by the dilated ducts. In children, ultrasound can detect congenital anomalies and an atypical location of the gallbladder.
Many of the detected pathologies require dynamic observation. In this case, the examination can be repeated as many times as necessary. The risk to the body - radiation - is minimal with this examination.