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Why does vision deteriorate with age? What needs to be done to maintain vision at 40?
Why does vision deteriorate with age? What needs to be done to maintain vision at 40?

Falling eyesight after 40 years is a fairly common problem, which is scientifically called presbyopia. This is a natural age-related process, consisting in the gradual loss of the ability to focus on close objects.

As a result, a person has to constantly strain his eyes to do work at close range, and this causes headaches, eye fatigue and general ill health.

Why does vision drop after 40 years?

Pathology appears as a result of natural inflationary processes occurring in the organ of vision, which leads to a physiological weakening of accommodation, that is, the ability of the eyes to adapt to the definition of objects located at different distances is lost.

The main reason why vision decreases are considered to be sclerotic changes in the lens: its dehydration, capsule compaction and loss of elasticity occur. In addition, it should be noted that with age, the adaptive capabilities of other structures of the eye are lost.

Age-related changes are associated with metabolic disorders through the vessels of the retina and conjunctiva. The risk of developing pathology is increased by the presence of diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, arterial hypertension, hypovitaminosis and chronic intoxication.

Sometimes presbyopia develops before the age of 40 and this is facilitated by hyperopia, astigmatism, frequent inflammation of the eyes and previous eye surgeries. In addition, eye injuries and professional activities associated with prolonged eye strain are provoking factors.

How to diagnose and treat age-related changes in vision after 40 years?

When diagnosing a pathology, the doctor takes into account the age characteristics and complaints of the patient. To detect presbyopia, it is necessary to check the acuity of visual function, taking into account the refraction test and the determination of refraction, for example, a skiascopy or computer refractometry is performed. It is important to determine the amount of accommodation and the closest point of clear vision for each eye, as the value may differ.

The structures of the eye are examined using ophthalmoscopy and biomicroscopy. To exclude concomitant glaucoma presbyopia, gonioscopy tonometry is performed. During the diagnosis, the doctor selects glasses or contact lenses to correct the pathology.

Thanks to the diagnosis, the ophthalmologist assesses the condition of the eyes and identifies existing disorders. After that, the patient goes to an ophthalmologist, who subsequently deals with the treatment of pathology.

Drug therapy for this disease is ineffective, so either spectacle correction or surgery is used. Often, bifocal glasses are used for correction, in which the lenses have two focuses. The first focus is necessary for focusing near, and the second in the distance.

In some cases, progressive lenses are prescribed to correct vision in the distance, near and in the middle zone, so they have three lenses. Contact lenses are allowed for correcting vision.

It is important to take into account that after 40 years, the disease is constantly progressing, therefore it is important that new glasses or lenses should be selected every 5 years.

Complex therapy includes the implementation of special exercises and the use of electrical stimulation, which implies the impact on the eyeball with weak currents. The doctor sometimes recommends hydrotherapy, reflexology, magnetic laser therapy, as well as massage of the neck-collar zone and vitamin therapy.

There are many different exercises that should be done regularly before age 40. Consider one set that doesn't take more than five minutes. Many eye problems are associated with circulatory disorders in the area of nerves and muscles. After regular exercise, you can bring everything back to normal.

To perform the first exercise, you must slowly draw eights in the air, keeping your head motionless. For the next exercise, keep an outstretched hand at eye level and look for 5 seconds. on the thumb.

Subsequently, move your hand to the right and then to the left, without taking your eyes off your thumb or turning your head.

If glasses or lenses do not help, either at the request or as recommended by a doctor, surgery may be prescribed to reshape the cornea of the eye.

Surgical options:

  • Keratoplasty. It involves the use of energy at a high temperature to influence the microscopic spots located around the cornea. The disadvantages of this technique include the fact that vision is subsequently restored, but for a short time;
  • Laser surgery. To improve the condition at the age of 40, a special instrument is used - kerat, which makes a thin fold in the cornea. Laser surgery aims to remove the inner layers of the cornea, which causes the domed shape of the eyeball to become steeper;
  • Subepithelial laser surgery. The doctor creates a fold in the epithelium, which allows you to change the outer layers of the cornea;
  • Photorefractive surgery. This type of surgery is similar to laser therapy, since the cornea is removed. Subsequently, the epithelium is completely restored;
  • Radical methods of treatment include the removal of the altered lens and the installation of an artificial implant in its place - a multifocal intraocular lens that simulates the action of the lens and allows focusing at different distances. Most often, this method is used after the presence of concomitant diseases, for example, cataracts, has been established. The operation is performed on an outpatient basis and usually lasts no more than 20 minutes. Local anesthesia is administered to the patient. The doctor makes a small incision, which heals later without stitches. Rehabilitation takes several days.

Preventive measures

As already mentioned, presbyopia is a natural pathology, so it cannot be cured and prevented. The only thing that is possible is to postpone the development of the problem for several years.

To do this, you should use the following tips:

  • Avoid prolonged and heavy eye strain;
  • Be sure to provide adequate lighting when working on a computer, watching TV, reading and performing other activities related to eye strain;
  • To preserve your vision, exercise regularly to keep your muscles toned and normal blood circulation;
  • It is important to eat right, with an emphasis on fruits and vegetables, so that the body receives the necessary vitamins. It is recommended to take vitamin complexes, only they should be selected together with a doctor;
  • It is necessary to regularly visit an ophthalmologist at least once a year after the age of 30 so that he can assess vision. It is important to eliminate existing pathologies in a timely manner, since they impair vision.

We hope that now you know why vision deteriorates after 40 years and what needs to be done to delay the onset of pathology as much as possible and reduce the risk of complications. If you notice that your eyesight is decreasing, immediately consult a doctor.

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