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2023 Author: Alfred Shackley | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-05-21 13:14
Mycosis is a fungal disease caused by increased activity of the fungal flora caused by parasitic fungi and opportunistic microorganisms.
Mycoses are focal, generalized and widespread. Fungal flora can penetrate deep into the dermis or localize on the surface of the skin. Diseases in acute form can develop after contact with a carrier or occur against a background of decreased immunity.
What are the symptoms of hair fungus and how to treat the disease?
Scalp fungus symptoms
General signs indicating mycotic hair damage:
- negative change in the quality of hair - dryness and fragility of keratin rods, increased secretion of sebum;
- fragility and section;
- the appearance of dandruff of various types;
- skin irritation;
- the appearance of itching, a feeling of baking;
- inflammatory processes of the root zone;
- the formation of plaques, scales on them of different colors.
In some cases, a weeping crust and purulent-inflammatory foci are formed. If cosmetics or shampoos have not been changed recently and the immune status has not decreased due to chronic diseases or the introduction of infections, then fungal infection can be suspected.
The most accurate determination of the type of pathogen is possible after a scraping analysis. If there is no way to go to a doctor, then you can try to find out the etiology of the disease by additional symptoms.
Hair loss from antibiotics
Hair often falls out after taking antibiotics - these drugs are used to eliminate bacterial infections.
Antibiotics are substances of chemical or organic origin that inhibit the growth of cells of protozoa or prokaryotic (unicellular) microorganisms.
Why does hair fall out after antibiotic treatment?
Medicinal substances do not have a selective effect and inhibit the development of any microorganisms - harmful and beneficial. After antibiotics enter the body, various side effects associated with the condition of the skin and intestines can occur, since after the destruction of beneficial bacteria, dysbiosis begins, and metabolic processes slow down. Accordingly, the acid-base balance of the skin changes, conditionally pathogenic bacteria are activated.
Most often, with a decrease in the immune status, the candida fungus is activated, which can be localized not only on the mucous membranes and in the folds of the skin in places with increased sweating, but also on the scalp.
The first symptom of the disease is usually oily or dry dandruff. A whitish coating appears on the skin, boils are formed, hair follicles are affected, which causes hair loss.
Head candidiasis has different forms - it can be mild and the only symptom will be dandruff, take an eczema-like form - in this case, erosion and rejection of the epithelial surface will appear on the dermis, and in the future, scarring. On the scars, hair follicles die off, and foci of alopecia appear.
A serious complication of candidiasis of the hair zone is hearing loss. The pathogenic flora invades the ear canal and inflammation covers the auditory nerve. Treatment of candidiasis - drugs with clotrimazole, nystatin ointment, "Fluconazole" in the form of ointment and tablets. Medical shampoos are used - "Nizoral", "Sulsena" and others.
At the same time, it is necessary to restore the flora that was destroyed by taking antibiotics. For this, immunostimulants and probiotics are used. The faster the immune status normalizes, the easier the body will suppress the increased activity of opportunistic microorganisms.
With hair loss, you can face another skin fungus - microsporum. The source of infection is animals and infected people. After contact, the spores spread so quickly that the infection looks like an epidemic. On the scalp, scaly areas of a rounded shape are formed, which stand out sharply against the background of healthy hair. The surface of the surrounding hairs is covered with a grayish bloom. Yellowish crusts form on the skin.
For treatment, the “Termikon” or “Terbizol” mazes are usually used, recovery occurs within 3-4 weeks. In some cases, drugs of general action are used - "Griseofulvin". To make the preparations better absorbed, it is recommended to take vegetable oils inside - olive or sunflower - in a teaspoon.
Microsporia is very similar to another fungal disease that causes alopecia.
This disease is most often called ringworm. Hair loss is due to the trichophyton fungus, which spreads rapidly through direct contact. Basically, children suffer from the disease - they have weaker immunity - but adult women, older people, and HIV carriers can also get sick.
Symptoms of the disease:
- severe itching in the hair growth zone;
- redness of the skin;
- gray bloom on hair and epidermis;
- the formation of round lesions with broken hair.
Swollen areas with severe inflammation may appear around the lesions. Vesicles appear inside the foci, which burst - solid crusts are formed, a rash appears, the behind-the-ear and submandibular lymph nodes increase. The inflammatory process can spread to the nail plate.
Trichophytosis can occur in a chronic form and be detected after the establishment of the chain of infection in case of an acute manifestation.
Symptoms in this case appear in a latent form, the scalp or nails are affected separately. The lesions on the scalp are represented by cyanotic lesions without clear boundaries with broken off hairs.
In case of damage to the hair zone, the following therapeutic scheme is used:
- "Griseofulvin" - it must be drunk in full, even after the tests for fungal flora are negative;
- hair must be shaved off, broken off keratin rods are pulled out of the foci with tweezers;
- it may be necessary to detach the stratum corneum of the skin - this is done with the help of salicylic lotions - the detachment is carried out up to 3 times;
- the skin is treated with antifungal ointments - salicylic, sulfuric, "Microspor", "Exoderil", "Lamisil".
Scab, or favus
In European latitudes, the disease is quite rare, but it is still sometimes diagnosed. The fungal infection is transmitted through the objects used by the victim, or through direct contact.
On the head with scab, foci are formed - round formations of a purple color of small size with yellowish crusts. In the foci, the hair breaks off and crawls out, healthy follicles remain around them. An unpleasant odor appears from the skin - stagnant, "barn", "mouse". If the disease is not treated, then the hair comes out almost completely, only along the edge of the head there is a border of healthy hair.
Treatment is similar to microsporia, additionally Irunin and Batrafen ointment can be used.
Features treatment of fungus of the scalp and prevention of diseases
If dandruff after treatment with general antifungal drugs does not go away within 1-2 weeks, and the condition worsens, you should consult a dermatologist.
Folk remedies only speed up the treatment - they are not able to destroy the antifungal flora on their own. To accelerate recovery, eucalyptus and tea tree oils, garlic juice, compresses from the roots of celandine are used.
In order not to get infected with a fungal infection, you need to follow the rules of personal hygiene, do not use other people's combs, change bed linen in time - check the cleanliness of bedding in a hotel or train. It is necessary to monitor immunity - when taking antibiotics, supplement the therapeutic regimen with probiotics and not increase the dose.
With a normal immune status, mycoses are difficult to activate, candida does not multiply and does not suppress beneficial microbacteria, and pathogenic parasitic microorganisms do not invade. If the acid-base balance of the skin is normal, the fungal flora will not be able to develop.