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What is dandruff and how to get rid of it?
What is dandruff and how to get rid of it?

Nowadays, people whose outerwear is showered on their shoulders with something white, similar to flour or powder, you can not often find. It is quite easy to buy a shampoo that removes a cosmetic defect. Often, detergents only remove external symptoms - white flakes flying from the skin on the head - hair growth zones. As soon as you change the detergent, the flaking of the scalp resumes.

To treat dandruff in the right amount, it is necessary to eliminate the factors affecting its appearance, and to stop the activity of the pathogenic flora that causes this condition.

Or maybe it is necessary to eliminate the source of infection? By the way, is dandruff contagious or not?

Etiology of the disease

It must be said right away that dandruff itself is not contagious. It manifests itself with an increase in the activity of opportunistic microorganisms that are constantly on human skin. The most common dandruff is the fungus Pityrosporum Ovale or Malassezia Furfur. This fungus is absent, or it is in a dormant state - the skin is clean. In some cases, the disease - seborrheic dermatitis - is caused by other types of opportunistic flora.

The appearance of dandruff is caused by the following reasons - a violation of metabolic processes that cause disruptions in the work of the sebaceous glands.

There are a lot of factors that adversely affect their activities:

  • infectious diseases that lower immunity;
  • hormonal disruptions;
  • digestive problems;
  • avitaminosis;
  • improper hair care;
  • stress factors.

Why, to the question: "Is it possible to get dandruff?", - many answer in the affirmative and even tell a story how, after visiting a hairdresser or sauna, they noticed peeling of the skin in the hair growth zone?

The level of acid-base balance in a healthy person has a pH from 5 to 5, 8, in women it is pH 5, 2-5, 5, and in men from 5, 5-5, 7. When this level changes, the opportunistic fungal flora is activated. But the acid-base balance is influenced not only by internal, but also by external factors. Increased humidity in the room, temperature changes, and the like.

In case of violation of hygienic requirements with tools, it is possible to bring in opportunistic flora from one person to another. If there are organic problems, the immune status is reduced, a change in the balance of microorganisms negatively affects the general condition. Although - this should be repeated once more - at a normal level of acid-base balance, the fungus is in a dormant state and is not transmitted from person to person.

Types of dandruff

Dry - peeling of the skin occurs when there is insufficient production of secretion - sebum. The emergence of foci in the hair growth zone is accompanied by increased dryness of the strands, fragility of keratin rods, sectioning and thinning of the hair.

Oily dandruff is otherwise called waxy. In the root zone, a glossy crust is formed, consisting of glued scales. The stratum corneum peels off usually in flakes. Hair with this type of seborrhea looks unsightly - the curls are dull, stuck together, the follicles - due to the fact that oxygen does not flow to them - are weakened. Hair begins to fall out.

There is a mixed type of seborrheic dermatitis. On the back of the head and crown of the head, the lesions are dry, the skin exfoliates with small scales, and closer to the forehead and especially the neck, in places where there are more sebaceous glands, seborrhea is oily.

Fungus treatment

It is not enough to eliminate a cosmetic defect, dandruff needs to be treated. If you do not take it seriously, then when changing detergents, irritation will again appear, causing serious discomfort - itching and flaking of the scalp.

In public places they try not to scratch themselves, but at home rarely anyone refuses to do so. Since the scalp is irritated, physical exertion is traumatic. Flora of a different nature is introduced into scratches and damage - more often staphylococcal and streptococcal - a purulent-inflammatory process begins, acne appears.

We must not forget that the distance to the brain from the hair growth zone is very small, and there is a high probability of penetration of pathogenic microorganisms through the bloodstream.

Dandruff medications may include the following ingredients.

  • Cyclopirox is a fungicidal action, or, more simply, a disinfectant, stopping the growth of a fungus. To destroy the fungal flora, 3 minutes contact is enough;
  • Zinc pyrithione - antimycotic substance;
  • Clotrimazole - an antimycotic substance from the group of azoles, has a wide spectrum of action, destroys seborrheic fungi, molds, dermapitis, effectively stops the multiplication of candida, destroys fungi at the intracellular level, penetrating through cell membranes;
  • Ketoconazole - This substance is most often included in anti-dandruff shampoos. The spectrum of action is also quite wide, changes the lipid composition of the membrane of fungal cells, disrupts the production of ergosterol;
  • Salicylic acid - it suppresses the secretion of the sebaceous glands, reduces the production of sebum. Has some antimicrobial activity, helps exfoliate dead cells of the epidermis. Used to treat oily seborrhea. High concentrations have a keratolytic effect - dissolving epidermal cells;
  • Bifonazole is an antifungal agent derived from imidazoldioxolane. There is no such aggressive effect as that of ketoconazole, it does not cause resistance - addiction. It has a therapeutic effect for 3 days.

The compositions of antifungal drugs and shampoos include substances and agents that do not have an antifungal effect, but accelerate recovery, due to which the activity of the fungal flora decreases.

Ichthyol is an ammonium salt of shale oil sulfonic acids. It has anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, local anesthetic, exfoliating effect. If the product contains ichthyol, the inflammatory process is stopped within a short time.

Selenium persulfide and climbazole regulate the number of opportunistic fungi and limit their ability to reproduce.

Another natural product that is often included in dandruff treatments is birch tar. It contains: phenol, xylene, toluene, resins. By itself, tar has no antifungal effect, but it has antiseptic and insecticidal properties. When applied to the skin, it has an irritating effect, due to which keratinized cells are exfoliated faster, the skin is cleared of them, and the regeneration process starts - restoration of the skin.

Dandruff treatment should not be limited to topical agents.

To normalize the production of sebum and stabilize the immune status, it is necessary that enough nutrients enter the body. It is not always possible to achieve this with the help of a healthy diet - in some cases, it is required to drink a vitamin-mineral complex or supplement the therapeutic regimen with immune drugs. Home treatment accelerates the treatment of seborrhea - drugs and remedies made according to recipes of traditional medicine. If you cannot get rid of dandruff with the help of special shampoos and topical agents, you need to visit a dermatologist - peeling of the skin and inflammation of the scalp can be a symptom of a different type of dermatological disease - for example, eczema or psoriasis.

In some cases, it may be necessary to consult an infectious disease specialist, gastroenterologist, endocrinologist and, for women, a gynecologist.

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