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Fibroadenomatosis of the breast: causes. Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment
Fibroadenomatosis of the breast: causes. Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment

What is fibroadenomatosis? This is a disease of the mammary gland, characterized by dystrophic changes in its tissues - the appearance of many small nodules with low mobility. Pathology occurs not only in women, but also in men.

Why does this disease occur?

The main cause is hormonal imbalance. The following factors can provoke such:

  • Stress - nervous breakdowns, psychoemotional instability are the main reason why breast mastopathy develops. Long-term stress also affects the function of the endocrine system;
  • Sexual problems - interruption of intercourse, irregularity or lack of sexual intercourse, dissatisfaction;
  • Gynecological diseases, abortions, including medical ones;
  • Early cessation of breastfeeding or refusal to breastfeed leads to stagnation. It is recommended to keep lactation for at least a year;
  • Diseases of the thyroid gland;
  • Fibroadenomatosis of the mammary gland often develops in the climacteric period, since at this time a natural hormonal failure occurs in the woman's body;
  • Liver dysfunction. It is responsible for the removal of hormone breakdown products from the body. Incomplete or untimely excretion of the latter leads to hormonal instability.

Symptoms of fibroadenomatosis in young women and in women during menopause

Clinical signs include: stabbing pain, particularly before menses; burning pain and pressure in the chest; discharge from the nipples; an increase in regional lymph nodes; swelling and induration of the breast.

The disease can take different forms:

  1. Diffuse fibroadenomatosis of the mammary glands is a diffuse form. The foci of pathology are widespread, localized everywhere, affecting, as a rule, both glands. On palpation, many nodules are felt (heterogeneous, granular, painful seals);
  2. Localized - seals of a denser structure than with masoplasia or adenosis. There is pain on palpation. Nodular formations are clearly defined, uneven tuberosity occurs on the skin;
  3. Cystic - multiple and multicameral cysts are formed. They have a clearly smoothed contour, are located both singly and in groups;
  4. Fibrous - fibrous proliferation of tissues predominates. Often occurs after infections, allergies, injuries;
  5. Focal benign fibroadenomatosis of the mammary gland. The glandular tissues are replaced by fibrous ones. Focal seals appear in the chest. Pain syndrome is not always present;
  6. Nodular - localized seals. As a rule, it occurs against the background of a diffuse form or as a complication of it.

All forms of the disease are united by menstrual dysfunction in women of childbearing age, mental and emotional instability, problems with conceiving and bearing a baby, deterioration of appearance (skin, hair, nails).

Treatment and diagnosis of breast fibroadenomatosis

Standard examination methods: mammography, which is carried out in two projections, is the most informative examination, it can detect even the smallest neoplasms and the smallest changes; Ultrasound of the mammary glands.

Special examination methods:

  • aspiration biopsy - sampling of material for cytological examination;
  • trukat biopsy - examination of materials by histological method;
  • stereotaxic biopsy - sampling of material from non-palpable neoplasms;
  • ductography - examination of ducts.

The need for the use of special diagnostic methods arises during the differentiation of seals, when there are suspicions of a malignant formation.

As additional studies, the doctor may prescribe:

  1. chest x-ray;
  2. thermography - print of tissue temperature;
  3. MRI or CT;
  4. examination of the lymph nodes;
  5. laboratory blood tests, in particular for hormones.

Comprehensive diagnostics allows you to see the complete clinical picture of the disease and draw up the correct therapy regimen.

How is the treatment carried out?

Efforts are directed along two paths: regulation of hormonal levels and relief of symptoms. To start a full-fledged therapy, it is imperative to establish the cause of the pathology and eliminate it, and then proceed to restore the hormonal balance.

The doctor also takes into account the age of the patient, the stage of the pathological process, the characteristics of metabolism and hormonal development, the presence of concomitant diseases. The complex of treatment includes hormonal preparations, homeopathic remedies, antidepressants, adaptogens, vitamins. To relieve pain syndrome, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used for a short period of time.

Diffuse large lesions are eliminated with the following drugs:

  • substances to normalize the function of the thyroid gland;
  • antiestroegna (pr. Fareston, tamoxifen, toremifene);
  • androgens that inhibit the production of gonadotropic hormones (bromocriptine);
  • analogs of neurohormones (releasing the hypothalamic hormone);
  • means for regulating the menstrual cycle - contraceptive drugs (pr. "Tri-regol", "Janine", "Non-ovlon");
  • synthetic progesterone ("Crinon", "Duphaston");
  • vitamin complexes to activate metabolic processes and improve liver function;
  • hepatoprotectors (Essentiale, Karsil);
  • homeopathic remedies.

In addition to medicines, it is necessary to include in the treatment complex a special diet that excludes caffeine, chocolate, and animal fats. It is also necessary to quit smoking and drinking alcohol.

If necessary, surgical intervention is prescribed. This happens when conservative therapy is ineffective. As a rule, only a sectoral resection is performed.

During the operation, material is also taken for laboratory research. Such surgical interventions are performed both under local and general anesthesia.

The complexity and size of the operation depends on the neglect of the pathological process, its duration and, accordingly, the form of the disease (focal, diffuse, etc.). In the postoperative period, pain occurs, for the relief of which painkillers (analgin, ketans) are prescribed.

Take care of your health, do not self-medicate and seek help from a specialist in time!

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