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What is an adenomatous polyp and where can it form?
What is an adenomatous polyp and where can it form?

Adenomatous polyp is a proliferation of tissues on the surface of the mucous membranes of various organs of the human body. It is believed that an untreated adenoma very quickly degenerates into an oncological tumor, so people who do not see a doctor in time run the risk of getting cancer.

Location of adenomatous formations

A phenomenon such as an adenomatous polyp can be found in the following organs:

  • In the uterus and on the endometrium;
  • In the rectum and colon;
  • In the stomach;
  • In the gallbladder.

In order to better understand the nature and characteristics of adenomas in different organs, it is necessary to consider them in more detail.

Endometrial adenomatous polyp

With such a disease, accumulations of overgrown tissue form in the uterus, which can be in the form of small tubercles or "stand on a leg".

The main symptoms of an adenomatous uterine polyp are as follows:

  • Menstrual irregularities, for example, a long delay in the absence of pregnancy;
  • An increase in the amount of discharge during menstruation;
  • Intermenstrual bleeding;
  • Incessant periods that last longer than seven days;
  • Pain in the lower abdomen in the area of the uterus, which can also be felt like pain in the intestines;
  • Discomfort and pain during intercourse.

Any of the above symptoms should be the reason for a mandatory visit to a doctor, since an adenoma in the uterus can lead to the development of cancer, in addition, in the presence of an untreated disease, the probability of getting pregnant tends to zero, since the egg cannot attach to the endometrium in the uterus.

A neoplasm in the uterus can be caused by the following reasons:

  • Severe hormonal imbalance;
  • The consequences of surgery, curettage of the uterine cavity, abortion, miscarriages;
  • Untreated sexually transmitted diseases;
  • Chronic inflammatory processes in the uterus;
  • Decreased immunity;
  • An incorrectly placed spiral into the uterus or not removed in time;
  • Bad heredity.

Treatment of an adenomatous endometrial polyp is carried out by surgery, first of all, the size of the overgrown tissue is assessed, and if the size of the adenoma exceeds two centimeters, then the risk of getting uterine cancer is about 10%.

During surgery, the uterine cavity is scraped out, the endometrial layer is removed along with the neoplasms, after which restorative therapy is prescribed.

To prevent the disease, doctors recommend meeting the following requirements:

  • Carefully protect yourself so that there is no unnecessary pregnancy and subsequent abortive curettage of the uterine cavity;
  • Eliminate casual sex;
  • Remove bad habits;
  • Visit a gynecologist every six months;
  • Seek medical attention if you have menstrual irregularities or pain in the uterus.

Intestinal adenomatous polyp

With an adenomatous polyp of the rectum, formations are formed inside it, which increase in size if untreated, and can also develop into a cancerous tumor. With an adenomatous polyp of the colon, the same situation is observed.

The most dangerous thing about an adenoma in the intestine is the absence of pain and minor discomfort, which you can simply not pay attention to.

But some symptoms can still be expressed quite clearly, you need to see a doctor if:

  • In the feces, blood is observed, which may indicate internal bleeding;
  • Severe diarrhea or, conversely, constipation;
  • Abdominal discomfort.

The disease is best diagnosed with colonoscopy. If multiple tissue growths are found, a biopsy is necessary to determine the risk of cancer in the colon.

If a proliferating adenomatous polyp of the colon has been seen, the likelihood of cancer increases. An adenomatous polyp with weak proliferation is not very likely to transform into a cancerous tumor, but this does not mean that it does not need to be treated. Treatment of adenomas in the rectum and colon consists in their removal by surgery, especially if not one polyp was found, but their accumulation.

Prevention of the formation of adenomas in the colon and rectum consists primarily in periodic examinations, especially if such a disease has already been noticed in relatives. Some doctors believe that changing the diet for a healthier and more nutritious side will help prevent the formation of dangerous polyps in the rectum and colon.

Adenomatous polyp of the stomach

In addition to adenomas in the uterus and intestines, such a formation can also be found in the stomach.

The most common symptoms of gastric adenomatosis include:

  • Frequent nausea and vomiting;
  • Unpleasant sensations in the epigastric region, pain is possible;
  • Frequent belching
  • Change in appetite;
  • Stool disorders, flatulence;
  • Strong salivation;
  • Feeling weak and losing weight.

These symptoms may coincide with the manifestation of other gastric diseases, so it is worth examining thoroughly to determine the exact cause of the ailments. The risk group includes people over fifty years old, especially if they have a genetic predisposition.

To diagnose an adenomatous neoplasm in the stomach, fibrogastroduodenoscopy (FGDS) is used, which will allow timely detection of a dangerous adenomatous proliferating polyp, as well as fluoroscopy, blood and feces tests, and biopsy.

Treatment of small formations in the stomach is possible with the help of medication, if the adenomas are large or numerous, then endoscopic removal or resection of the stomach is used as a method of treatment. To prevent the disease, it is enough to regularly treat gastritis and its manifestations, as well as eat right.

Adenomatous polyp of the gallbladder

Quite often, the formations are localized on the inner walls of the gallbladder, while closing its lumen. Most often, this pathology is observed in women over 35 years old.

A polyp in the gallbladder can appear for the following reasons:

  • Bad heredity;
  • Diseases of the gallbladder and biliary tract;
  • Metabolic disorders.

With adenomatosis of the gallbladder, symptoms such as are observed:

  • Abdominal pain;
  • Bitterness in the mouth, nausea, vomiting;
  • Colic;
  • Jaundice.

The disease is diagnosed with ultrasound and computed tomography, and blood, urine and feces are analyzed. If formations are found, most often treatment consists in removing the gallbladder, since drug treatment will not bring any results.

Adenomas in the uterus, rectum and large intestine, stomach and gallbladder do not belong to formations that can be ignored and hope for their independent resorption.

Over time, the tissue of the neoplasm grows, with each passing day increasing the likelihood of cancer. Therefore, it is very important to detect it in a timely manner and prescribe treatment, in most cases consisting in surgical intervention.

If there have been cases of oncology in the family, and if relatives had adenomas in any organs, examinations should be carried out regularly and as often as possible. Only a careful attitude to your health will help you to detect and fix the problem when it has not yet become fatal.

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