Table of contents:
2023 Author: Alfred Shackley | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-05-21 13:14
Infections of the genitourinary system are the most common and are most often caused by bacteria. As a result, unpleasant symptoms appear in men and women, in particular - blood when urinating. After the appearance of such signs, it is imperative to consult a doctor who will prescribe qualified treatment.
Associated signs and symptoms
Blood during urination in women and men is not the only symptom of a developing infection. Usually, the disease is accompanied by a sharp pain in the groin or abdomen.
In addition, the following signs of the disease are distinguished:
- frequent urination with a small amount of urine;
- less often, patients experience an increase in temperature, a burning sensation of the genitals;
- unpleasant smell of urine;
- pus in the urine - hematuria.
Causes and classification of urinary tract infections
The causes of urinary tract infections are bacteria that make up the physiological flora of the intestine. For example, E. coli bacteria, as well as less common bacteria of the genus Proteus, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas and others. Bacteria pass through the urinary tract into the bladder, after which they begin to grow and multiply.
Infectious diseases in which blood is observed during urination can be roughly divided into:
- acute inflammatory disorder of the bladder (cystitis),
- acute inflammatory kidney disease (pyelonephritis),
- asymptomatic infectious disorder (asymptomatic bacteriuria),
- recurrent infections.
Acute Inflammatory Bladder Disorder
The peculiarity of this reason for urination with blood is that cystitis most often occurs in women, while in men, cystitis is rare and usually requires additional urological treatment.
The disease is caused by the bacterium E. coli, which is found in the digestive tract. All women are at risk of cystitis due to the special anatomy (a small distance from the anus to the urethra), which greatly facilitates the penetration of bacteria into the bladder.
Cystitis is characterized by sharp pain during, at the end, or after urination. Blood is rare, but the urge to use the toilet is frequent. The diagnosis of cystitis is confirmed by urinalysis.
A sample for analysis is taken from the first morning urine. In infectious diseases, bacteria (called bacteriuria) and leukocytes (called leukocyturia) are found in the urine.
Treatment is carried out with antibiotics for 3-7 days, depending on the cause of the disease and drug sensitivity. Although the signs of cystitis may disappear within one or two days after starting treatment, bacteria will continue to grow back. This is the reason why antibacterial treatment must be carried out to the end. It is very important to drink plenty of fluids during this period and avoid hypothermia.
Acute inflammatory kidney disease
Pyelonephritis, a kidney infection, is a special type of infection that usually starts in the bladder and urethra and then complicates the kidneys. The disease requires immediate medical attention, and if not treated properly, the infection can damage the kidneys. If bacteria enter the bloodstream, it can be life-threatening.
Pyelonephritis is most commonly caused by E. coli. Women whose urethra is shorter and closer to the rectum are four times more likely to suffer from this condition. Patients have frequent urination with blood, which is accompanied by severe pain in the lumbar region. Menstruation in such women is especially painful.
For diagnosis, a urine or blood test is done. In the beginning, antibiotics are recommended to prevent infection, and acute cases of pyelonephritis require long-term therapy.
The most commonly used drugs are:
They are taken until the end of the treatment.
Elderly people and children usually remain in the hospital for frequent monitoring of possible complications due to an increased risk of sepsis. The length of hospital stay depends on the patient's state of health. Drug treatment lasts 10-14 days, and urine control should be carried out at the end of therapy and 14 days after its end.
Asymptomatic bacteriuria is said to be when the urine contains bacteria, but the person does not have any clinically apparent problems. Usually, the disease is not accompanied by pain in the genital area. This situation does not require treatment, except in special cases: women undergo therapy during pregnancy and people for whom urological surgery is indicated.
But when, for example, a person with incontinence has a catheter that is regularly changed every 3-6 weeks (the catheter is a foreign body that is a means of constant transfer of bacteria to the bladder), then there is no need to introduce antibiotic therapy. In this case, the presence of bacteria in the urine is not a sign of illness.
Recurrent urinary tract infections
Infections that occur several times (2 to 3 or more times a year) are called recurrent infections. They usually occur in women, most often in the form of cystitis. Given this, it is also necessary to exclude some other diseases or pathologies that may be the true cause of urinary tract infections. There is pain, blood at the end of urination and during it, a burning sensation, an unpleasant odor.
Therapy consists of pharmacology and hygiene measures.
Treatment consists of taking medication - one pill in the evening for an extended period of time (6-12 months).
Adequate diagnostic methods will help eliminate the presence of pathology (urolithiasis, tumor, narrowing of the urethra).
All these pathologies can partially reduce the quality of life, but do not pose a serious threat to the health of the affected person.
Factors that complicate urinary tract infections are as follows:
- the presence of urinary catheters;
- the presence of urological pathologies;
- presence of stones or cancer of the urinary tract;
- impaired renal function
Treatment of urinary tract infections
If urination is bleeding and painful, specialized treatment is needed.
Which medications to prescribe and how long to take them depends on the state of health and the type of bacteria found in the urine:
- Simple infections. Symptoms usually disappear after a few days of treatment, but antibiotic therapy must be continued to the end for the infection to completely disappear. For uncomplicated conditions, your doctor may recommend a shorter course of antibiotic treatment. In addition, your doctor may recommend a pain reliever (pain reliever) to relieve the burning sensation while urinating. One of the most common side effects of analgesics is orange-colored urine.
- Frequent infections. The doctor can prescribe not only medications for treatment, but also urine tests, a single dose of antibiotics after intercourse. If the infection is related to sexual activity, vaginal estrogen therapy is also prescribed.
- Severe infections. In this case, treatment with intravenous antibiotics in a hospital may be required.
To avoid bleeding during and at the end of urination, it is recommended that you drink plenty of fluids, urinate frequently, and practice good hygiene.
Avoid drinks that can irritate your bladder, such as coffee, alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks that contain citrus fruits and caffeine, as this can worsen the infection or cause you to urinate more often.
From time to time, women are advised to consult a gynecologist - preferably 2 times a year.