Table of contents:
- Causes of Cystic Ovarian Changes
- Treatment methods
- Surgical removal of the cyst
- Cystic changes in the ovaries: is it possible to get pregnant?
- Prevention measures
2023 Author: Alfred Shackley | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-05-21 13:14
A cyst is a benign blistering formation, the cavity of which can be filled with pus, blood plasma or blood cells. Its size can be different, it depends on the stage of the disease.
Cystic ovarian change is a gynecological disease associated with hormonal imbalance: the amount of male hormones (they are called androgens) is higher than the amount of female hormones. Because of this, ovulation does not occur.
A cyst is not considered a cancer, but in the absence of timely and correct treatment, it can develop into it. In addition, infertility is a consequence of this disease. There are cystic changes in both ovaries (polycystic), only the left or only the right ovary. The causes and treatment are similar in all cases.
Causes of Cystic Ovarian Changes
There are a large number of circumstances that can cause this disease. Most often, the causes of cysts are associated with hormonal imbalance, when androgen begins to be produced by the body in quantities exceeding the norm.
This situation can occur both in young girls who are in puberty and in adult women during menopause.
Hormonal disruptions can also be caused by a number of other reasons, namely:
- treatment by taking hormonal agents;
- diseases of the endocrine system, for example, malfunctions of the thyroid gland;
- abortion (especially in young girls);
- using birth control pills;
- being overweight;
Another common factor in the development of the disease is stress. People who regularly experience stressful situations, as well as those whose weight changes abruptly and often up or down, are at risk of cystic transformation of the left ovary.
- Change of climatic zone.
- Respiratory disease, malfunctioning of the airways.
- Weak immunity.
When choosing the methods of treatment of the ailment in question, the doctor always relies on what caused it. Therefore, it is very important to understand the causes of cyst formation.
This gynecological disease can affect all systems of the body, and therefore the spectrum of heterogeneous symptoms of the disease is quite wide.
The most common are:
- Violation of the menstrual cycle: irregular periods or their complete absence.
- Inability to get pregnant due to lack of ovulation.
- Heavy bleeding during menstruation.
- Obesity (manifested at the waist).
- Constant pain in the pelvic region (if the cyst has formed on only one ovary, the pain can be given to the right or left side).
- Skin problems: acne, oily sheen.
- Hair loss or, conversely, their abundant growth throughout the body (with damage to the right ovary).
If at least one symptom manifests itself, you urgently need to consult a gynecologist, undergo the necessary research. As a rule, for the diagnosis, an ultrasound scan is prescribed, which, easily detecting a cystic formation, provides information about its nature and size.
After the doctor, having examined the patient, as well as having carried out the necessary research, made a diagnosis, found out the causes of the disease, he must think over a treatment plan. It can be medication or, if the first method is not sufficient at this stage, surgical.
Drug treatment of a cyst involves taking a number of drugs prescribed by a gynecologist.
Usually, the list of recommended drugs is represented by the following groups of drugs:
- Birth control pills. They are needed to restore hormonal balance. The composition of these funds, provoking an independent resorption of the cyst, brings the hormonal background to a normal state. An example of such drugs is Logest, a contraceptive that should be taken one tablet every day (the time of admission is fixed).
- Antibiotics are the second class of medications prescribed to treat cystic growth, if the latter is caused by the presence of pathogenic microflora. Inexpensive broad-spectrum drugs are often prescribed. For example, Lincomycin. Contraindications to the use of this drug are violations of the kidneys and liver, lactation, pregnancy. It is recommended to take the drug three times a day, 500 milligrams each.
- Vitamin complexes. The treatment course must necessarily include them, since one of the causes of cysts is reduced immunity. Taking antibiotics further suppresses the immune system. Vitamins, on the contrary, have a positive effect on it, strengthen, trigger the defense mechanisms of the human body. The course should include folic acid (five milligrams per day), ascorbic acid (one tablet per day), as well as vitamin E (one hundred milligrams per day). Contraindications to the reception of these funds are reduced to the individual intolerance of these substances.
If you have pain, you can take painkillers as needed, but not more than the amount set by the instructions.
The medication course and its components should be prescribed only by the attending doctor. It proceeds from the symptomatology, the stage of the course of the disease, the size and nature of the cyst, the individual characteristics of the patient. Cystic changes in the ovaries are a disease that can have dangerous consequences. Therefore, self-treatment is unacceptable.
Surgical removal of the cyst
Unfortunately, it is far from always possible to cure the disease with medication. If the cystic formation is large or there is a risk of spontaneous opening, they resort to surgical methods. There are only two of them - laparoscopy and laparotomy.
A modern and safe way to remove a cyst is laparoscopy, carried out by means of a laser beam. It vaporizes everything inside the cystic bladder.
Laparoscopy consists of three stages:
- Diagnostics necessary to confirm a suspicion of a cyst.
- The actual operation. It takes little time, is not traumatic, and therefore does not affect the ability to conceive.
- Control - assessment of the state of organs after surgery.
Laparoscopy has a number of contraindications, which must be taken into account by the attending physician. Unfortunately, this procedure is often not carried out due to poorly equipped hospitals, when there is no necessary equipment for it.
Another type of surgery is considered classic. Laparotomy is performed if the neoplasm can develop into a cancerous tumor. Also, this operation is performed with large cysts.
The cyst is removed through a large incision in the abdominal region. After the operation, the doctor examines the tissues of the organ, if they contain metastases - secondary foci of the disease, he decides to remove the entire organ.
After laparotomy, the patient is under medical supervision for a certain time (if there are no complications, then four to five days). The recovery period is quite long: for about two months, any physical activity, sexual activity is contraindicated for a woman.
Cystic changes in the ovaries: is it possible to get pregnant?
If a neoplasm on the ovaries appears before the baby is conceived, it is necessary to undergo a full course of treatment to eliminate the disease. As a rule, the inability to get pregnant during the illness is one of its symptoms. However, sometimes pregnancy does occur. If this happens when the cystic ovarian change is already developing, there is a risk to the life of the mother and child.
This is due to the fact that when carrying a fetus, pressure on all organs increases, which can provoke a rupture of the cyst membrane and the spread of its contents. In addition, with a stable growth of education, operations are often prescribed even during pregnancy, and this increases the risk of miscarriage.
After complete removal of the cyst, the woman's fertility is restored after sixty to ninety days. Up to this point, trying to conceive a child is pointless and unsafe.
Sometimes, if the organ is completely affected, the entire ovary is excised during the operation. At the same time, the possibility of conception remains. If both organs are removed, infertility occurs. Then doctors offer the option of in vitro fertilization.
Prevention of any gynecological diseases is extremely important for a woman, since all of them can lead to dangerous consequences.
To prevent the occurrence of cystic neoplasms on the ovaries, it is necessary to adhere to several simple but immutable rules:
- Regular visits to the gynecologist (twice a year).
- Strict adherence to the recommendations of a specialist, as well as instructions for taking hormonal medications.
- Using the correct contraceptive pill for contraception.
- Refusal of abortion at an early age of a woman.
- Constantly taking care of your nervous system (avoiding stress).
- A balanced diet containing vitamins to support the immune system.
These rules must be followed from a young age, regardless of whether sex is being conducted.
Cystic changes in the ovaries are not a sentence. If you pay attention to the development of the disease in time and strictly follow the doctor's recommendations, you can easily heal and conceive a child. On the contrary, self-medication, the use of untested traditional medicine, a disdain for one's health leads to dire consequences - infertility and oncology.