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Bladder stones - how to fight and how to treat?
Bladder stones - how to fight and how to treat?

With urolithiasis, calculi are found not only in the kidneys and renal pelvis, but also in the bladder. They can enter it through the ureter from the kidneys, but sometimes they are directly formed in this organ.

Causes of calculus deposition in the bladder

In men, the cause of the formation of stones in the bladder is purely male problems - diseases of the prostate gland of various etiologies.

In women, stones in the bladder form less often - mostly closer to menopause, when physiological changes in gynecological organs begin - prolapse of the uterus or a decrease in its tone. After operations, calculi can form on the suture ligature.

Urethral stricture causes the formation of calculi - its internal narrowing. The disease is caused by surgical interventions and injuries of the pelvic organs, including those obtained during childbirth.

Unlike the formation of calculi in the kidneys, metabolic disturbances in the body have little effect on their deposition in the bladder.

The main cause of this pathology is infravesical obstruction - this term refers to all diseases and structural abnormalities that lead to stagnation of urine, as a result of which salt crystals fall out of it, which later form stones.

If communication with the central nervous system is broken - the appearance of a neurogenic bladder - the process of urination is also disrupted. Innervation disorders appear after brain and spinal cord injuries or as a result of age-related changes.

They cause disturbances in the outflow of urine:

  • inflammatory processes of various etiologies;
  • complications of radiation therapy;
  • foreign bodies - the remains of suture material;
  • catheters;
  • defects and diverticula of the mucous membrane of the bladder;
  • helminthic invasion - genitourinary schistosomiasis;
  • in women - cystostele and prolapse of the bladder walls.

In the treatment of urolithiasis, the removal of a stone from the bladder must be carried out if the calculus that has descended through the ureter does not want to leave the body on its own and causes serious problems.

Bladder stones symptoms

Signs of stones in the bladder do not differ in men and women. The main symptoms of this condition:

  1. attacks of pain in the pubic area;
  2. the desire to urinate becomes unbearable, accompanied by acute painful sensations;
  3. the last portion of urine contains blood elements - sometimes only visible on toilet paper.

There are also signs by which one can suspect the presence of calculi in the bladder. The stream of urine during urination is suddenly interrupted, there is a spasm and an attack of pain in the lower back, radiating to the hips and genitals. When the position of the body changes, urination resumes and the pain goes away.

The same condition can be observed with

vigorous movements - for example, when performing sports exercises.

In boys and girls with this disease, the symptoms are different. Boys have pain with spontaneous erection and urinary incontinence, girls - urinary retention.

In some cases, the disease is asymptomatic and is detected by chance - when examined with special equipment.

Diagnosis of the disease

To identify the presence of calculi in the bladder, basic and additional examination procedures are performed.

Evaluate the indicators of urine analysis, conduct ultrasound of the bladder, prescribe cystoscopy. If necessary, a panoramic image and computed tomography are taken using a contrast agent.

Bladder stones treatment

Depending on the clinical picture of the disease, a choice is made between a surgical or conservative method.

Surgical operations are performed using the following technologies:

  • crushing stones into small pieces and then removing them with a cystoscope or for an independent exit - a medicine is prescribed that increases the production of urine;
  • elimination of stones and their extraction by the endoscopic method;
  • operation in an open way.

Conservative method of treatment - drugs are prescribed for stones in the bladder and the patient's nutrition is adjusted - depending on the type of stones and their structure. This helps to remove the stone naturally, without surgery.

Some urologists believe that the conservative method is unreliable, postponing the operation for an indefinite period leads to the fact that calculi increase. The patients themselves try to do without surgery.

Medicines and folk remedies in the treatment of the disease

How to remove a stone from the bladder? Medicines for removing stones in the bladder do not differ from those used to dissolve kidney stones.

These include:

  1. "Spilled";
  2. "Urolesan";
  3. "Cyston";
  4. Phytolysin;
  5. Allopurinol
  6. "Kanefron";
  7. "Blemaren" and the like.

The active substances of the drugs increase the amount of urine excreted and change its properties, and promote the dissolution of stones. Medicines are selected depending on the type of calculi.

Diet is of great importance for dissolving calculi. It must be selected correctly.

By type, calculi are divided:

  • carbonate - in the composition of calcium carbonate;
  • phosphate - from calcium phosphate;
  • urate - consist of uric acid;
  • oxalate - from salts of oxalic acid.

Oxalates and urates are the most common. There are also stones of mixed nature, struvites - they do not dissolve, cystine stones.

If you do not determine the type of stone and the structure of the calculus, traditional medicine can be harmful. For example, with phosphate stones, decoctions from dye madder are used, And with urate - kidney tea, a decoction of horsetail, lingonberry tea, a decoction of elderberry flowers and dioecious nettle.

Oxalates are dissolved by herbal infusion - horsetail is taken in equal parts, celandine is large and hernia is smooth.

If it is not possible to determine the type of calculus, or the stones are composed of several types of sediments, then the selection of medicines and folk remedies is better to agree with the doctor.

On your own, you can only change the drinking regimen - in the presence of stones in the bladder, you should drink 0.5-1 liters more liquid than in a healthy state.

The amount of liquid is increased due to clean water, compotes from dried fruits or fruit drinks, the use of grapes and watermelons.

The diet

Diets for carbonate and oxalate stones are similar. It is necessary to exclude from the diet red meat and fish, offal - you can not eat food with a large amount of purines and oxalic acid.

It is easier to make a list of what to eat than what you should avoid.

The daily menu is compiled on the following basis:

  1. bread and pastries;
  2. occasionally fermented milk products;
  3. fruits: apples, plums, quince, watermelon, grapes;
  4. berry fruit drinks - cranberry and lingonberry;
  5. rosehip broth;
  6. porridge on the water;
  7. poultry meat.

Oxalates are difficult to dissolve, and if they are more than 0.5 cm in diameter - this is visible on examination, it is better to crush.

In the presence of phosphate stones, the diet is as follows - you can eat:

  • oils - butter and vegetable;
  • soups;
  • pasta;
  • fish and meat;
  • sour drinks;
  • bread.

It is necessary to limit the amount of salt, reduce the content of fermented milk products in the diet, completely exclude lingonberries, currants, spices, and alcohol.

To prevent urate stones from forming and decreasing, foods with a high purine content are also removed from the diet. The list of permitted foods is reminiscent of the carbonate diet.

Strong tea and coffee, alcohol, carbonated sugary drinks and tonics should be excluded from the diet, regardless of the etiology of the disease.

As you can see, with timely and adequate treatment, it is quite possible to get rid of the problem. Take care of your health!

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