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Subependymal cyst in a newborn baby: causes, symptoms, treatment
Subependymal cyst in a newborn baby: causes, symptoms, treatment

A brain cyst is a scary diagnosis for people who have just become parents. A cyst in the brain is a volumetric formation inside an organ, which is a spherical cavity filled with fluid, which is localized in the place of dead nerve tissue.

Pathology can occur in any area of the organ, be single or multiple. It should also be noted that a cyst is not a tumor-like formation!

Subependymal cyst: why does it appear in a newborn baby

The main provoking factor is congenital pathologies of the development of the central nervous system and trauma during the neonatal period. In infants, they occur due to:

  1. disorders of cerebral circulation, as a result of which tissue necrosis begins;
  2. due to various injuries, inflammations, for example, meningitis, encephalitis, as well as cerebral hemorrhages.

The listed reasons lead to the fact that tissue degeneration begins, its necrosis, a cavity is formed, which eventually fills with fluid and squeezes the tissues located nearby. As a result, there is a specific neurological symptomatology, there is a delay in the growth and development of the baby.

Subependymal cyst and other types of pathologies in the brain

In newborns and older children, there are three main types of pathology: arachnoid, subependymal and vascular plexus cyst.

  • The arachnoid is the same cavity, which can have different sizes and shapes, localized in any part of the organ. Hemorrhage, trauma, inflammatory disease can provoke its appearance. A characteristic feature of this type of pathology is rapid growth. The increase in size leads to compression of the surrounding tissue. Serious consequences occur without proper treatment;
  • Subependymal is a severe form of pathology that requires regular monitoring over time. This occurs due to poor blood circulation at the site of localization of the organ ventricles. Its appearance leads to tissue necrosis and severe ischemia. In place of the dead cells, a cystic cavity is formed. Sick children need annual magnetic resonance imaging. Only in this way can doctors monitor the increase in the size of education;
  • The cyst of the vascular plexus is formed in the prenatal period. The main provoking factor is the herpes virus infection. If the disease is detected during pregnancy, the prognosis is favorable, since over time such an education dissolves. With a later formation, the prognosis is less favorable, there is a high risk of developing severe consequences.

Consequences and symptoms of a subependymal cyst of the brain in newborns

Symptoms depend on the location of the neoplasm in the brain. For example, when it is located in the occipital region, the visual center is affected, respectively, various visual impairments occur: double vision, decreased visual acuity, "fog" in front of the eyes. When pathology appears in the tissues of the cerebellum, the following is observed:

  1. violation of gait;
  2. coordination;
  3. dizziness.

When a brain cyst is localized in the Turkish saddle, at the location of the pituitary gland, disturbances in the endocrine system may occur: as a rule, these are delays in sexual and physical development.

Regardless of the place of localization of education, a child may experience:

  • convulsions;
  • hearing impairment;
  • paresis / paralysis of the arms and legs.

An increase in the size of the formation leads to an increase in intracranial pressure, because the volume of the cranium does not change, but the amount of tissue increases. An increase in ICP is always accompanied by:

  1. headache;
  2. dizziness;
  3. a feeling of throbbing and distention of the head;
  4. nausea;
  5. vomiting;
  6. increased sleepiness and lethargy.

In a severe case of progression of the disease, bone divergence occurs, fontanelles in newborns do not overgrow, as a result of which there is a delay in development.

How is a subependymal or other cyst on the left diagnosed?

  • The main method for detecting the disease in babies of the first year of life is ultrasound, or neurosonography. It is very important that the pathology is diagnosed as early as possible. In newborns, this is the easiest way to do this, since the fontanelles are not overgrown, the bones of the skull are not closed.
  • A screening study is recommended for premature babies, as well as newborns after a severe pregnancy or complicated childbirth, when fetal hypoxia has been identified.
  • Studies such as magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography provide the most accurate information about the location, shape and size of the cystic cavity.

Control and management of a subependymal cyst

The pathology can only be eliminated by surgery. Surgical interventions in this situation are divided into two types: radical and palliative.

  1. In the first case, craniotomy is performed, then the complete removal of the cyst, including its contents and walls. Surgical intervention is carried out in an open way, therefore, it is accompanied by high trauma.
  2. Palliative methods include bypass surgery and endoscopy. Bypass surgery is the removal of the contents of the formation by means of a special bypass system. This method is less traumatic when compared with radical intervention, however, it has several disadvantages. For example, there is a risk of infection, since the shunt stays in the brain for a long time. In addition, the brain cyst is not completely removed, only its contents are removed.

Endoscopy involves the use of a device such as an endoscope, which is inserted through punctures in the skull. This option is the least traumatic and safest of all of the above.

How quickly does the choroid plexus cyst and subependymal cyst resolve?

The danger of a subependymal cyst is determined by its type. It is worth noting that in infants, these very often dissolve on their own after a while. If they do not increase, then they do not pose a danger. Periodic ultrasound monitoring of the pathology is recommended in order to detect the presence of complications in time and take drastic measures.

Quite common in newborns, cysts of the choroid plexus of the brain.

In the choroid plexus, cerebrospinal fluid is formed that feeds nerve cells at the initial stage of embryonic development.

The peculiarity of such a pathology on the left or on the right is that part of the cerebral fluid, located in the vascular plexus, falls into a vicious circle, which leads to the formation of pathology. These can be detected using ultrasound.

Choroid plexus cysts in the brain indicate that pregnancy is complicated, but this does not mean that the baby will be born sick.

Newborn prognosis

The outcome of the disease depends on several factors: the time of detection of the pathology, its size, lack of growth. If the disease is detected early, is small and does not progress, then the prognosis is favorable. When the formation grows rapidly, squeezes healthy tissues, the outflow of cerebrospinal fluid is disturbed, then serious complications arise. The prognosis in such a situation depends on the timeliness of the surgical intervention.

Health to you and your baby!

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