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How does giardiasis manifest in a child?
How does giardiasis manifest in a child?

The disease caused by the ingestion of parasites - lamblia - which belongs to the group of helminthic invasions, is called giardiasis.

When it enters the digestive tract of a child, lamblia occupies the liver and small intestine, which significantly affects its general condition. Complaints may not be voiced, however, according to the characteristic manifestations, one can understand that the child is infected.

In the body, lamblia can exist in two forms:

  • Vegetative - in the upper parts of the large intestine and liver, where they actively reproduce, feeding heavily - these protozoa give preference to carbohydrates - sweets and flour products;
  • In the form of cysts - the so-called spore form - in the rectum, from where they enter the external environment, infecting others.

In good conditions - moderate humidity, warm - cysts remain viable up to 2, 5 months, on the soil can exist up to 12-14 days, with increased dryness up to 5 days.

Giardiasis in children can be chronic or acutely symptomatic.

Ways of penetration of lamblia into the child's body

  1. Symptoms of lamblia in the liver in children occur from infancy. Parasites can enter the body with mother's milk, in case of violation of hygiene requirements - through the dirty hands of adults, a pacifier, toys.
  2. Older children can become infected when they put objects that are not intended for sucking in their mouths while playing with animals, including pets. Dogs are lying on the street, cysts stick to their fur, people infect domestic cats - they bring the simplest parasites in the form of cysts on the soles of shoes, and cats can lie down not only on their bedding, but also somewhere in the corridor.
  3. Giardia is able to exist even in chlorinated water that flows from the mains. The risk of infection increases with low stomach acidity.

Symptoms of giardiasis in children

In infants, infection with lamblia often occurs in the form of an acute process, accompanied by the appearance of diarrhea and high fever. The acute period lasts up to a week, and then becomes chronic.

The following signs help diagnose the chronic form of helminthic invasion:

  • low-grade fever, which lasts more than 2 weeks at night;
  • disruption of the digestive tract - frequent diarrhea with foamy stools;
  • grinding teeth during sleep;
  • pallor of the skin;
  • drowsiness and constant fatigue, increased fatigue, impaired concentration;
  • recurrent abdominal pain on the right or around the navel;
  • cough attacks resembling asthmatic - that is, with signs of suffocation;
  • chronic rhinitis.

Manifestations of giardiasis of the liver from the nervous system - dizziness, mood swings, nervousness, motion sickness, even during short trips in transport or riding on a swing.

Symptoms of giardiasis from the skin:

  1. uneven coloration in the neck, armpits, abdominal circumference;
  2. dry skin on the extensor surfaces;
  3. bright red border around the lips;
  4. atopic dermatitis.

The clinical forms of the disease can be as follows:

  • intestinal;
  • hepatobiliary;
  • asthenoneurotic;
  • toxic-allergic;
  • mixed;
  • anemic.

All forms of giardiasis have their own characteristics associated with damage to the organ that is occupied by lamblia. Lymph nodes may enlarge with the disease, regardless of the type of lesion.

Giardia settled in the liver cause dyskinesia of the biliary tract, disrupting the secretion of bile, which provokes the development of pancreatitis, gastritis and gastroduodenitis.

Allergic manifestations with giardiasis do not lend themselves to relief by conventional means - antihistamines or hormones. Until the source of infection is removed, intoxication will continue.

In children with giardiasis, physiological development slows down, they begin to lag behind their peers physically, reflexively and psychologically.

Diagnosis of lamblia in the liver and treatment

It can be carried out according to various methods.

  1. With the help of a study of the duodenal contents - this method is extremely painful for children.
  2. In a blood test, the presence of specific antibodies in the blood serum is examined.

These studies are used when, with characteristic symptoms, the main analysis - scatological - does not show the presence of cysts. Feces for scatological analysis must be provided warm.

An ultrasound examination may also be required - the liver and pancreas are enlarged with giardiasis.

Treatment of giardiasis is divided conditionally into 3 stages. This process is quite lengthy, it cannot be carried out without following a strict diet.

Carbohydrates are excluded from the diet - children are very difficult to tolerate the lack of sweets, the daily menu is based on cereals and vegetables of various types.

Stage 1

Depending on the severity of the symptoms, they are prescribed:

  • choleretic drugs of various groups;
  • enzyme therapy;
  • enterosorbents;
  • antihistamines.

Stage 2

Antiparasitic drugs are used at choice or in combination:

  1. Furazolidone;
  2. Trichopolum or Metronidazole;
  3. Tiberal;
  4. "Warmed";
  5. "Nemozol".

Antibacterial drugs may be required.

Stage 3

The diet is adjusted, products are introduced into it that enhance intestinal peristalsis - baked apples, dried fruits, dairy products. To eliminate intestinal dysbiosis caused by treatment, probiotics are prescribed, to increase immunity - immune agents, to restore the body - vitamins.

Each stage lasts up to 2 weeks.

It should be noted that medications that destroy giardia have a large number of side effects.

During treatment, there may be:

  • vomit;
  • intoxication;
  • abdominal cramps;
  • indigestion;
  • neurological disorders;
  • violation of hematopoietic function.

During treatment, parents should analyze how it affects the condition of the children. Correction of the therapeutic regimen, the use of hormonal drugs, symptomatic tactics may be required.

Folk remedies for giardiasis of the liver

Traditional medicine offers alternative treatments for giardiasis in children.

  1. Cucumber puree steeped in boiling water and infused;
  2. This recipe is not for toddlers - it can be used for teens. Green walnuts with honey and vodka;
  3. Coconut treatment. A third of the grated coconut is eaten instead of breakfast - the next meal is in 5 hours, not earlier;
  4. The grass has fallen asleep;
  5. Aspen bark - the medicine for children is bitter, but it works effectively;
  6. Infusion of birch leaves.

At the third stage, tansy is added to the treatment regimen - it enhances bile secretion.

When using folk remedies for children, you are required to seek advice and permission from a pediatrician and a specialist in this disease. Some symptomatic forms of giardiasis require medication. Alternative therapy in this case is only auxiliary.

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