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2023 Author: Alfred Shackley | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-05-21 13:14
Acne is a polyetiological disease caused by inadequate work of the sebaceous glands and hair follicles. Despite the abundance of medicines and cosmetic procedures, the issue of eliminating acne is still acute.
From small pimples to big problems
Despite the fact that rashes on the face do not affect overall health and do not threaten life, they are the most unpleasant cosmetic problem. Appearing on the skin of the face of adolescents and young women, they often provoke neuropsychic disorders and burden their owner with serious complexes and difficulties in social adaptation. After healing, they often leave unattractive pits and hypertrophic cicatricial changes in their place.
For these reasons, acne treatments are so popular in professional aesthetic medicine and cosmetology clinics. All acne, or, as they are called in medicine, acne, grows from comedones - pores clogged with sebum and dirt.
Why do comedones appear?
There can be a great many reasons for this - from a banal neglect of proper hygiene to a serious hormonal imbalance in the body. Rashes growing from comedones are not inflammatory processes, and, if the patient wishes, can be easily eliminated.
The mechanism of origin of comedones and their varieties
Comedones are the first bells that signal the formation of acne. They usually appear against the background of a violation of the innervation and hormonal regulation of the sebaceous glands. This pathological mechanism is crowned with increased production of sebum with a reduced concentration of linoleic acid in it, which is part of the structure of cell membranes.
As a result of this process, the following destructive changes occur in the cellular matrix of the epidermis:
- The separation of fat cells takes place at an increased rate, while the subcutaneous fat is not released and squeezes the walls of the capillaries;
- The process of keratinization of squamous epithelial cells in the surface parts of the hair follicles is disrupted;
- The follicle orifices narrow or close completely.
Comedones on the face form and progress like cystic neoplasms. First, microcomedones are formed, and then large closed and open comedones.
Fortunately, all destructive changes in the structure and functioning of the sebaceous glands are completely reversible. But on the part of the patient, it is very important to notice "something was wrong" in time, since it is impossible to get rid of actual acne quickly, and besides, they almost always leave unattractive scars in their place. Treatment of comedones is optimal to begin at their first appearance on the skin of the face.
In medical practice, comedones are classified into two main types:
Open. This type of comedone is the most common and fairly mild. In addition to excess sebum, dust and dirt particles, dead and destroyed particles of the epidermis, residual fragments of decorative cosmetics accumulate in the hair follicles.
In everyday life, this phenomenon is called "black dots", and in fact, it is a banal pollution of the porous structure of the skin.
At the point of its exit to the surface, the cork acquires a black tint due to the oxidation of the contents in direct contact with oxygen. Open comedones are the easiest and least traumatic type.
Closed. This type of comedone is more dangerous and less susceptible to adequate therapy. In contrast to their open counterparts, closed comedones do not surface and grow inside. Outwardly, they resemble pale nodules, such as wen, but not so contrasting and pronounced.
A decrease in the concentration of linoleic acid in the cells of the epidermis leads to an increase in the acidity of fat, as well as suppression of the protective functions of the epithelial tissue. This process creates the most favorable environment for the growth and reproduction of pathogenic microorganisms - staphylococci, fungi, propinobacteria.
The inflammatory process occurs both in the closed comedones themselves and in nearby tissues. Purulent acne forms, which not only spoil the visual perception of the face, but are also quite painful.
They are also catalysts for the evolution of plugs to boils and abscesses. In place of comedones, pits and irregularities in the microrelief, heterogeneous cicatricial changes in the skin, and age spots appear.
Comedones are most often localized on certain parts of the face and body:
- Base line of the scalp;
- The chin;
- Upper back;
- The front surface of the chest.
Much less often, they can be seen on other areas of the body.
Causes of comedones on the face and body
Knowing the possible causes of the disease, and at the same time entering the risk group, you can not wait for its immediate appearance, but engage in preventive therapy.
So, what could be the cause of the appearance of comedones?
- Hereditary predisposition. If your close relatives have acne stagnation, or any of them suffer from severe comedones, you need to take more careful care of proper facial and body hygiene. The genetic factor is expressed in the very structure of the pores and their diameter, the physiological characteristics of the inherited skin type, as well as the tendency to increased sebum secretion;
- Disorders of the central nervous system and endocrine diseases, which can contribute to rigid diets, frequent stressful situations, chronic fatigue syndrome, sleep disturbances. The same category should include such pathologies as hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis, diabetes mellitus, dysfunction of the gonads;
- Hormonal imbalance - this is the reason that explains the frequent cases of acne in pubertal patients (especially adolescent boys), women during pregnancy and menopause;
- Incorrect nutrition. If you overdo it on sweets, and your daily diet is dominated by light carbohydrates and unsaturated fats, do not be surprised to get acne. Introduce plant foods into your diet, lean on fruits, vegetables, dairy and fermented milk products. Eat lean meat, preferably poultry. Be sure to diversify the menu with fish and seafood. Limit fried, smoked, and spicy foods. Do not overuse sweets and caffeinated drinks;
- Unhealthy Lifestyle. Addiction to alcohol and cigarettes, long-term schematic intake of medications, "love" for sweet carbonated drinks - all this can be attributed to the common causes of comedones and acne;
- Unfavorable ecology. Living in regions with increased radiation, gas-polluted megacities, staying in an environment with an increased content of ions of salts of heavy metals cannot affect the state of the skin in a favorable way;
- Disregard for hygiene. If you do not cleanse your skin well enough, you have a habit of going to bed with decorative cosmetics on your face - acne is almost guaranteed to you. This also applies to girls who abuse natural and artificial sun exposure and those who choose the wrong care products.
What if the disease is already making itself felt? What can be done to treat closed comedones? First of all, we recommend that you start with the provoking factors and eradicate them, and only then proceed to eliminate the consequences.
Treatment and prevention
How to get rid of closed comedones? With adequate treatment, of course. For the purpose of its selection, it is worth contacting a qualified dermatocosmetologist. Prevention also has to go hand in hand with active therapy, and in combination with it must be a complex and comprehensive approach.
So, prevention consists in the following actions:
- Daily washing with salicylic acid products;
- Use of micellar water and syndental soap;
- Weekly mechanical exfoliation (exfoliation with a scrub);
- The use of tonic and antibacterial lotions based on medicinal herbs;
- Correction of nutrition and lifestyle.
Regarding the treatment, it is important to consult a doctor - only he will be able to objectively assess the course of the disease and select the necessary local and internal drugs. Therefore, the question of how to get rid of existing comedones on the face is best to ask the doctor.
Be healthy, and let your appearance not be spoiled by such unpleasant phenomena as acne!