Table of contents:
- Varieties of neoplasms on the neck
- Clinical picture
- Causes of the appearance of a tumor on the neck
- Diagnostics and methods of treatment
- Prevention of complications
2023 Author: Alfred Shackley | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-05-21 13:14
A swelling in the neck can appear for various reasons. Some neoplasms arise as a result of blockage of the sebaceous glands, others are manifestations of a dangerous oncological disease. In order not to worry in vain and start treatment on time, if a tumor is found on the neck, you should immediately consult a doctor.
Varieties of neoplasms on the neck
The medical classification of neoplasms divides them according to their clinical manifestation:
- Benign - they grow slowly, painful sensations rarely occur, there are no metastases.
- Malignant - aggressive formations are characterized by accelerated growth, penetration of metastases into other organs and relapses.
Tumors of the head and neck by localization can be located in the epithelium, in connective or nervous tissue, in organs (larynx, lymph nodes).
Education can manifest itself as a result of thyroid pathology. Organ dysfunction occurs when hormone production is disrupted. Thyroid growth can occur in children and adults. The increase in size is determined visually and by touch. In a normal state, the organ is felt.
Benign neoplasms on the neck include:
- Lipoma - a tumor occurs deep in the adipose tissue, as a result of a malfunction of the sebaceous gland. The bump under the skin is clearly visible, it is soft and mobile. The neoplasm does not cause discomfort, but it can grow to a large size. This harmless lump can develop into oncology over time, so the doctor is advised to remove it surgically.
- The human papillomavirus causes the formation of tumors from epithelial cells. It is dark brown to pink in color and has a rough surface. The diameter of the papilloma can be 1 cm, it protrudes noticeably above the surface of the skin. Outwardly, the papilloma looks like a small growth with a thin leg, it does not cause concern. It is removed at the request of the patient for cosmetic purposes.
- Fibroma - localized on the lateral parts of the neck - on the right or left. It grows from connective tissue and is divided into two types: nodular and diffuse. The nodular form is located under the skin, the diffuse one does not have a capsule and grows outward. If neoplasms are detected, they are immediately removed; treatment may require a course of radiation therapy.
- Neurinoma - this form is less common than the above pathologies. It has the form of a dense knot, round or irregular in shape, is characterized by soreness when pressed. If a neuroma is suspected, a biopsy is performed, if the diagnosis is confirmed, a surgical operation is performed.
Malignant tumors on the neck, depending on the lesion, may indicate several types of cancer:
Pathology affects the tongue, oral cavity, pharyngeal walls, metastases spread to other organs.
The external manifestations and accompanying symptoms of a formation on the neck depend on its nature.
The phenomena accompanying cancer include:
- trouble swallowing food;
- swelling in the neck and face;
- pain at the site of the neoplasm;
- hoarseness, change in voice.
A swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck is manifested by the following symptoms:
- visually and upon palpation, an increase in the size of the organ is noted;
- knots are soft;
- when pressed, moderate to severe painful sensations occur;
- there may be local redness of the lymph nodes;
- the temperature rises.
- if the lymph nodes are stiff to the touch, this may lead to suspicion of cancer.
On examination, the doctor details the manifestations of the pathology that has arisen. Several aspects are important for the diagnosis:
- localization of the tumor on the neck (right, left, back);
- the number of neoplasms;
- consistency (soft or hard).
Causes of the appearance of a tumor on the neck
The primary diagnosis of pathology can be carried out by determining the localization of the neoplasm.
A lump at the bottom of the neck above the collarbone is an enlargement of the lymph nodes, which can be a reaction to a bacterial or viral infection in the body. The symptoms of inflammation and the growth of lymph nodes in this area indicate the presence of parasites or cancer of the blood: leukemia, lymphoma.
Cancer can affect the organ itself. This is an oncology of lymph nodes - lymphosarcoma, which requires complex treatment.
A tumor of the neck on the right causes various pathologies, it can be a symptom:
- venereal disease;
- measles in children;
- HIV infection;
One of the main causes of neck cancer, doctors say, is the carcinogenic effect of tobacco smoke through smoking or passive inhalation.
Other factors include:
- excessive alcohol consumption;
- work in hazardous production;
- radiation to remove facial hair or acne;
- poor oral hygiene;
- frequent consumption of mate or hot food.
Diagnostics and methods of treatment
Determining the nature of the tumor is possible only with a serious study.
Patients are assigned:
- Organ ultrasound;
- tumor biopsy;
- general blood analysis;
- tumor markers;
- histology of the neoplasm;
- CT scan.
The doctor carefully analyzes the symptoms and clinical picture of the disease. If the swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck is caused by an inflammatory process in the body, then antibacterial drugs are prescribed, it can be "Amoxicillin" or "Tsiprolet".
Inflammation of the lymph nodes often occurs in children, it is caused by colds and SARS. In such a situation, the pediatrician prescribes drugs that strengthen the immune system.
Benign neoplasms are not treated conservatively; their appearance requires surgical intervention.
The main methods of treatment for malignant neck tumors include:
- surgical intervention;
- radiation therapy;
- combination of methods.
Cancer treatment methods depend on its stage. The use of radiation therapy slows down the development of metastases, reduces the number of relapses, and reduces the percentage of cancer deaths.
- For small TI-T2 lesions, a high dose of radiation can be used with minimal risk of tissue dysfunction. When treating moderate tumors of stages 2-3, the radiation dose is reduced due to the need to irradiate large volumes.
- A malignant tumor growing outward is better treated than other forms. When cancer is located in bone, muscle or cartilage tissue, the percentage of patients who recovered is extremely small.
- If the neoplasm touches the nerve, then the situation is complicated by the patient's paralysis. At stages 1-2, radiation therapy for head and neck tumors is most effective. In difficult cases, surgery is indispensable. With advanced cancer, chemotherapy is prescribed.
Any cancer therapy has many side effects. Patients' health worsens, the swallowing process is disturbed, hair falls out, and a decrease in immunity is observed. After the end of the course of treatment, these unpleasant consequences disappear.
Prevention of complications
No specialist will give unequivocal recommendations for the prevention of a malignant neck tumor. There are no clear ideas about the mechanism of cancer in this part of the body. In order to prevent an advanced form of a tumor, it is necessary to consult a doctor in a timely manner if even a small lump or swelling on the neck is detected.
As a preventive measure, it is proposed:
- quitting smoking and drinking large amounts of alcohol;
- the use of protection in production with toxic substances;
- full treatment of infectious diseases.
When a tumor appears on the neck, it does not matter on the left or on the right, you should not wait for it to disappear by itself. Check its nature for the safety of your own health.