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2023 Author: Alfred Shackley | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-05-21 13:14
Aphthous-necrotic stomatitis in children is an inflammatory disease, the main symptom of which is the formation of ulcerative defects on the oral mucosa of various localization. If in adults this disease is caused mainly by the introduction of spindle-shaped bacteria, and a secondary infection is added later, making the disease worse, then in children, pathogens are activated in the reverse order.
First, an inflammatory process appears due to an increase in the activity of streptococci, staphylococci or conditionally pathogenic flora of the oral cavity - fungi of the Candida species, and only then Bacillus fusiformis or Borellia vincentii "wake up".
However, for the therapeutic scheme, the order of the introduction of pathogenic flora does not matter. The second name of the disease is Vincent's stomatitis. The inflammatory process can capture the tonsils.
Causes of the disease
The main factors causing the manifestation of the activity of spindle-shaped bacteria were identified:
- decreased immunity due to the appearance of infectious or recurrent chronic diseases;
- a problem with the digestive organs;
- allergic reactions of various kinds;
- inflammation of the gums during tooth growth;
- caries - when the teeth have already appeared.
Most often, Vincent's stomatitis develops due to increased children's curiosity. While mastering the surrounding space, babies taste objects that are completely inappropriate for this. Even the most attentive parents and nannies are not able to carry out antiseptic treatment of the entire space around the child. They can't even imagine what the little researcher will pull into his mouth the next moment.
Some children lick or chew on inappropriate objects until middle school age.
Symptoms of Vincent's stomatitis
Depending on the severity of the disease, the following symptoms can be distinguished.
At first, parents notice swelling of the mucous membrane, its redness, the child feels pain during the sucking or chewing process, begins to be capricious while eating. Sometimes there is minor bleeding from the gums.
If you start treatment at this stage, then the further development of the disease can be stopped - provided that a secondary infection does not join.
With moderate severity, the following signs of the onset of the disease appear:
- a necrotic crust appears on the gums;
- the mucous membrane bleeds, ulcerative defects covered with fibrin appear on it;
- the gums are swollen, if there are already teeth, pus is released from the gum pockets;
- the lymph nodes are enlarged;
- the temperature rises;
- my mouth smells like rot.
Of course, the child becomes moody and refuses to eat.
Further, the general intoxication of the body increases. Ulceration increases, fragments of the exposed bone of the hard palate or gums can already be seen, vomiting, intestinal upset, and abdominal cramps appear.
Treatment of aphthous and ulcerative stomatitis
Before treating a disease, you need to find out the cause of its occurrence. The diagnostic task is to differentiate Vincent's stomatitis from agranulocytosis or mononucleosis. If the doctor insists on additional examinations, you should not refuse, especially if the disease often recurs.
The appearance of ulcerative defects may indicate a pathology of the digestive system or the onset of oncological processes. Sometimes children may develop "adult" illnesses - if sick adults are nearby. They can infect such dangerous diseases as HIV infection or syphilis.
It is quite difficult to treat ulcerative stomatitis in children, not because no medicine has been invented for it. It's just that the children are capricious and do not open their mouths. It is very important to find the right approach to the little patient, to try to carefully open the mouth of the children.
Remember that forceful exposure can cause serious maxillofacial trauma and aggravate the general condition - such precedents were when babies tried to open their mouths roughly. Such attempts end with a dislocation or fracture of the jaw.
Before proceeding with therapeutic measures, it is necessary to wrap a layer of gauze on the index finger and prepare the necessary solutions for anesthesia and sanitation of the oral cavity. Then the baby's nose is clamped, and a finger moistened with the necessary medication is inserted into the mouth.
How to treat ulcerative stomatitis in order to cause the child as little suffering as possible?
You should start with pain relief. The anesthetic is best diluted in glycerin so that it does not corrode ulcerative defects.
Next, the antiseptic treatment of the oral cavity begins. For this, solutions of potassium permanganate, furacilin, hydrogen peroxide, a decoction of chamomile and oak bark are used.
Before cleansing the foci of necrosis, the mucous membrane is softened with enzymatic agents: "Chimopsin", "Trypsin", "Chymotrypsin". Only after removal of the purulent discharge begin antimicrobial and antibacterial therapy.
The mucous membrane is treated with metronidazole in various dosage forms and "Chlorhexedin", if a fungal infection has joined, then "Clotrimazole" or nystatin ointment is used.
Treatment of aphthous stomatitis must be carried out under medical supervision. At a certain stage of the disease, it may be necessary to use antiviral or antibacterial agents of general or local action - the doctor should make the decision on the appointment of drugs of this type.
The therapeutic regimen includes taking such drugs:
- broad-spectrum antibiotics, or antiviral drugs;
- vitamin therapy;
- means that increase immunity.
It is very important to adjust your diet. From the children's diet, you should temporarily remove food that causes irritation of the mucous membrane. This group includes sour, spicy, dry and salty foods.
Fruits and raw vegetables must be temporarily not given - a vitamin complex is enough. Even sweet berries or apples contain fruit acid.
The daily menu is made up of dairy products, various slimy cereals, meatballs, minced meat, cookies and bread soaked in weak tea or water, as a drink they give a decoction of raspberries or rose hips. Even grown-up children, it is advisable to transfer to baby food - it is very convenient, and this food form takes into account all the needs of a developing child's body - it contains basic minerals and vitamins.
You should not treat the disease in children on your own with folk remedies - this can provoke serious complications.
The infection can spread through the hematogenous and lymphogenous pathways throughout the body, cause a purulent-inflammatory process in various organs and systems. It should not be forgotten that the brain is located in the immediate vicinity of the nasopharynx, and when pathogenic flora is introduced into it, dangerous diseases can occur - meningitis and encephalitis.
The prognosis for recovery is favorable - when treatment is started on time. If the therapeutic measures are delayed, there is a risk of periodontal disease and exposure of the tooth neck. The conditions require further treatment.
The main preventive measures: compliance with hygiene measures and cleansing the oral cavity from food debris after each meal.
Children's health depends entirely on parental attention. A nursing mother should wash her nipples before each feeding, and after a meal, treat the baby's mouth.
Up to 2-3 years of age, parents should make sure that the baby brushes his teeth and rinses his mouth. In the future, children themselves cope with hygienic measures, parents should only keep the process under control.
You should carefully handle children's toys, explain as the child grows up that you should not put your hands and unsuitable objects in your mouth, and bite your nails.
Remember that maintaining personal hygiene, increasing the immune status and a rational healthy diet are the main prevention of stomatitis.