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Fistula on the gums: causes of appearance, how to treat, consequences
Fistula on the gums: causes of appearance, how to treat, consequences

Any formations in the oral cavity should be alarming and be the reason for going to the dentist, since in most cases they have serious consequences. This also applies to the gingival fistula, which is known as a gum fistula.

Education is a channel connecting the site of infection and the surface of the gums, which has an exit into the oral cavity. The fistula has a hole through which pus is released. The color of the formation can be red, pink, pale pink, and a fistula usually occurs near the base of the tooth.


The phenomenon does not arise by itself. Below we will consider what are the causes of fistula.

Untreated or poorly treated dental caries

Over time, caries flows into pulpitis, then periodontitis, and later the infection affects the upper part of the tooth root, as a result of which an abscess occurs.

Poorly filled root canals

It is not in vain that when filling the canals, a good dentist sends the patient to do an x-ray - he must make sure that they are all carefully sealed, otherwise the development of an abscess, and as a result, fistula, is possible.

This happens in 60% of cases of poor-quality fillings.

Tooth root damage

When working with canals, cleaning them with special instruments, the doctor should be extremely careful, since they are easily damaged.

  1. If perforation is not noticed in time, purulent inflammation appears over time.
  2. The disease often occurs when the late wisdom teeth are cut.
  3. There are frequent cases of the appearance of a fistula against the background of a cyst due to a decrease in local immunity.


  • In the presence of periodontitis, which is one of the common causes of gingival fistula, overwork, hypothermia, any diseases of the body and the oral cavity, and decreased immunity, including local ones, can provoke the development of education.
  • In view of the fact that the causes of the fistula are often caused by the mistake of the dentist, entrust the treatment of your teeth only to trusted specialists, whose work you are sure of.
  • If the doctor makes a mistake, the gingival fistula will not appear immediately - for some time the process of suppuration will be hidden and asymptomatic.
  • The causes of the fistula appearing on the gums may be hidden in the cyst and the appearance of wisdom teeth. In these cases, treatment begins with the elimination of the consequences of these particular phenomena, and only then the therapy of the gingival fistula is carried out.


Education is noticed primarily by its external signs - the appearance of a pimple-like pouch. Nevertheless, visually, it can also resemble other formations in the oral cavity.

Therefore, you need to know what symptoms may indicate that this is a fistula:

  1. Swelling of the gums, redness, inflammation caused by the fact that pus passes through the fistulous canals;
  2. When pressing and biting, chewing food, there is pain. The pain is felt even if you just press on the affected area with your fingers;
  3. Accompanies the disease and mobility of the tooth, near which the fistula has formed;
  4. One of the signs of a fistula is an unpleasant odor from the oral cavity, characteristic of the decay process.

What can be confused with education?

In appearance, it may resemble other ailments of the oral cavity.


  • A cyst, which is a "sac" in which pus collects. Without treatment for inflammation, in this case, pus affects and replaces healthy tissue, but the cyst does not have a channel for its exit. Getting rid of this disease is urgent, since it often leads to the destruction of the entire jaw and even the formation of oncology;
  • Fat, which is an accumulation of adipose tissue. In general, a wen is considered a harmless formation, which is nevertheless unaesthetic. Usually the fat gets in the way, so you should see a doctor to get treatment. Fatty often occurs in children when their teeth erupt, and over time, as a rule, they retreat on their own;
  • The external resemblance to a gingival fistula may also be with purulent inflammation. First, a pimple-like red formation appears, and then its size increases. You cannot squeeze out the pus accumulated in the gums on your own. In advanced cases, purulent inflammation requires surgical intervention, but if you start timely drug treatment, surgery can be avoided.

No matter how safe the formation in the oral cavity may seem to you, you definitely need to see a doctor.

Why is a gingival fistula dangerous?

The fight against the disease must be immediate. The fact is that its consequences can be very serious.

  1. When neglected, a fistula can cause tooth loss. This is due not only to the fact that its mobility is increasing all the time, but also to the fact that healthy tissues will be affected, which over time is prescribed to remove the tooth by surgery.
  2. The periosteum, in which the vessels are located, can also be affected, and they feed all the teeth. The infected periosteum gradually dies off, and in this case, the consequence of the fistula formed on the gum may be the loss of not one, but a much larger number of teeth. During the operation, all tissues of the periosteum affected by the fistula are removed.
  3. With an increase in the amount of pus, it can also affect the facial soft tissues, which will also have to be removed during surgery.

Such serious consequences should force you to visit the dentist in a timely manner, and cure the disease with medication, which will allow you to get rid of it, and from the severe consequences of the phenomenon.

Treatment with traditional methods

Before starting it, the doctor usually directs the patient for an x-ray. This is necessary in order to determine how far the fistula on the gum has already spread into the tissue, and only after that treatment can be started.

The latter in traditional medicine can be carried out in two directions:

  • Medication (antibiotics are used for it);
  • Surgical intervention (with it, the fistula is removed by surgery).

The drug effect is carried out according to the following scheme.

  1. Opening the tooth to free the root canals.
  2. Removal of pus, dead tissue.
  3. Disinfection of the oral cavity using antiseptics.
  4. Further, the doctor puts a medicinal composition into the cavity of the tooth, which will be there for some time.

This is not all that the doctor will do if the patient comes to him with a fistula on the gum.

At the next appointment, the specialist will continue to work.

  • The temporary filling is removed, the condition of the canals is assessed.
  • If necessary, re-treatment of the oral cavity is carried out. Physical therapy may also be indicated.
  • In the absence of foci of inflammation, the specialist installs a permanent filling.
  • If the fistula is formed due to damage to the canals, the doctor may not remove the filling, making the treatment through the gums.

Surgical intervention is indicated in cases where the disease has affected a large area and most of the tissues are affected. In addition, the doctor usually prescribes an operation if the tooth is covered with a crown, it has pins and other complex structures that are difficult to dismantle, and after treatment it is difficult and expensive to restore.

Today, operations are almost always done using a laser beam.

Treatment with folk methods

It can be done at home, but such remedies will only help to provide first aid, disinfect, relieve pain, and for subsequent treatment, you still need to consult a doctor.

Herbal ointment

For its preparation, useful herbs are used, and it is prepared like this:

  1. We combine the color of tansy and calendula with the roots of sorrel and dandelion, as well as herbs such as sweet clover and yarrow. All components are taken in equal parts.
  2. Grind the ingredients with a meat grinder, mix.
  3. For ease of use, add ichthyol ointment to the composition.
  4. We use it to lubricate the gums three times / day.

Camomile tea

For the treatment of a fistula on the gum, carried out at home, such a remedy is prepared.

  • Fill in 1 tbsp. l. chamomile-colored boiling water (2 cups).
  • After 3 hours we decant the infusion.
  • In the resulting liquid, moisten gauze or cotton pads, wipe the gums with them. You need to repeat the procedure several times during the day.

Infusion of chamomile and calendula

Prepare the remedy in the same way as the chamomile infusion, only the latter is combined with calendula in equal parts.

Even if folk remedies bring relief and a decrease in gingival fistula, it is imperative to consult a doctor with this ailment for a full examination and treatment.

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