Table of contents:

Types of hygromas on the hands and their methods and treatment
Types of hygromas on the hands and their methods and treatment

Hygroma (synovial cyst) is a tumor-like disease that most often affects the joints of the hands. A hernia-like sac of fluid usually forms on the back of the wrist.

Hygroma on the finger is considered a professional ailment, since it is most often found in machinists, pianists, people working with jackhammers, etc.

What is a synovial cyst?

The hygroma that forms on the hand is a fluid-filled capsule. It appears on the surface of cartilaginous tissue and, with significant physical exertion, can protrude strongly and even burst. If the problem is not dealt with, the tumor will grow over time due to the constant division of endothelial cells.

In most cases, hernia-like formations do not pose a serious health hazard to health. When the capsule breaks through, the contents flow into the joint cavity.

However, after a while, the lump appears again, which is caused by the restoration of the tightness of the capsule, which is again filled with liquid.

Main reasons

What causes hygroma on the fingers?

The disease is more often associated with arthrosis, degenerative changes in cartilage tissue and heavy stress on the joints. Medications are prescribed to get rid of small tumors, and large synovial cysts are removed surgically.

However, the causes of the appearance of synovial cysts are very diverse and not fully understood.

The main factors provoking the development of the disease include:

  • degenerative changes in cartilage tissue;
  • fractures and sprains of the tendons;
  • hereditary predisposition;
  • inflammatory processes in the joints;
  • heavy loads on the fingers;
  • regular injuries of the wrist joints.

In some cases, surgery can be the cause of finger hygroma. But such situations were rare in medical practice.

Symptomatic picture

Photos of patients with hernia-like bumps on the phalanges of the fingers look very frightening. However, formations on the hand do not always appear suddenly.

What are the signs of the development of the disease?

  1. Recurrent numbness of the limbs or fingers;
  2. Painful sensations in the joints;
  3. Temperature increase;
  4. Impaired blood circulation, manifested by darkening of the phalanges of the fingers.

By itself, the synovial cyst is very dense and can move when pressed. If you notice swelling lumps on your hands or wrist joints that are rapidly increasing in size, be sure to consult a doctor.


Depending on the cause that caused the appearance of the cyst, several types of the disease are distinguished:

  • Mucous cyst. The disease occurs due to the development of arthrosis of the joints. As a rule, hernia-like bumps appear in the area of the interphalangeal joints. Hygroma makes itself felt only in the case of the activity of osteophytes arising from deforming arthrosis;
  • Tendon hygroma on the fingers of one or both hands. In this case, a capsule with a jelly-like content is formed from layers of tendons. This kind of ailment not only causes discomfort when moving, but also limits it. Treatment of hygroma occurs by removing the neoplasm, since relapses after surgery are extremely rare;
  • Radiocarpal cyst. The formation occurs in the palmar region near the tendon artery. The growth of a tumor can lead to impaired blood circulation, which is fraught with serious consequences.

Diagnostic methods

Since the causes of the onset of the disease are not fully understood, if the above signs are found, it is advisable to contact a specialist for examination. Clinical diagnostics allows you to accurately determine the presence of a synovial cyst, as well as prescribe an appropriate course of treatment.

What methods of diagnosing an ailment does orthodox medicine offer?

  1. Radiography - allows you to exclude the possibility of the development of malignant tumors and the occurrence of relapses;
  2. Ultrasound - helps to clarify the place of "dislocation" of the hernial sac;
  3. MRI - used to diagnose hygroma near tendon arteries.

It also happens that in order to make a diagnosis, it is enough to be examined by an orthopedic surgeon, who with a high degree of probability will be able to determine the presence of a cyst.

What is the risk of rupture of the hygroma?

What should be done if the hygroma burst on the arm? In most cases, people who have ruptured a cyst do not seek help from a specialist. A bursting capsule does not cause much discomfort, as a result of which many patients simply rejoice at the self-destruction of the disease.

In fact, the problem rarely goes away on its own. If the synovial cyst bursts, it creates favorable conditions for the development of pathogenic microorganisms. As a result of their vital activity, inflammatory processes arise, which are fraught with even blood poisoning.

What to do in case of rupture of a hygroma? You should definitely contact a specialist who will prescribe medications. They will strengthen the body's immune defenses and reduce the risk of relapse.

Conservative treatment

How to overcome the disease?

Sparing methods of treating hygroma involve the use of glucocorticoid hormones. This method of treatment is suitable for the development of small cones - no more than 1-1.5 mm.

How is the procedure carried out?

  • Under local anesthesia, the tumor is pierced with a special needle;
  • The jelly-like liquid is removed from the capsule with a syringe;
  • The resulting cavity is filled with medicine;
  • A sufficiently tight bandage is applied to the puncture site.

After a while, the walls of the capsule are not filled with liquid, but grow together, which excludes the possibility of relapse.

Another option for treating the disease is mechanical crushing of the cyst.

How is the procedure performed?

  1. Under anesthesia, the bladder is pressed with a blunt object;
  2. The cyst capsule breaks through, as a result of which the contents are poured into the tissues surrounding the hygroma.

Today, such removal of a synovial cyst is used extremely rarely due to the painfulness of the process, as well as the high likelihood of relapse.

Surgical intervention

In the case of a strong growth of a hernia-like lump, only surgical intervention helps. This method involves a five-week immobilization of the affected joints, which is done with the help of an orthosis. Thus, in the future it is possible to avoid relapses.

How are the operations done?

  • The procedure is performed under local anesthesia;
  • An incision is made with a scalpel to separate the cyst from healthy tissue;
  • Then the neoplasm is excised;
  • The resulting hole is sutured so that the articular fluid remains inside the cartilaginous bag;
  • The incision is sutured and bandaged.

The whole process of removing the interfering hygroma on the finger takes no more than half an hour and practically excludes the possibility of refilling the capsule with liquid.

I wish you health and wellness!

Popular by topic