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2023 Author: Alfred Shackley | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-05-21 13:14
Rheumatoid arthritis - what is it? This is a severe systemic pathology that causes multiple joint lesions - more than 4-5 … The disease can be classified as autoimmune, lesions occur according to the erosive-destructive type, that is, the destruction of the joint cartilage can be noted.
Women aged 30-35 are more likely to suffer, in men, the incidence is 3 times less common. The disease can also affect children - 5% of all cases.
Modern treatment of rheumatoid arthritis is complex. It includes therapeutic measures using medications, diet, lifestyle adjustments.
Rheumatoid arthritis - symptoms and causes
The main symptom of the disease is pain in small joints (more often in the fingers of the upper extremities).
Then there is a symmetrical damage to the bone and cartilage tissue.
- In the classic variant of rheumatoid arthritis, the damage progresses slowly, the clinical picture on one limb corresponds to the spread of pathology to the other;
- with monoarthritis, first one joint can be deformed, then another, more often the lesions begin from the knees;
- pseudoseptic form - a condition as at the onset of an infectious disease with classic symptoms: chills, fever, fever, increased sweating; vasculitis joins, joints are affected later;
- articular-visceral form - lesions of the vessels, central nervous system, kidneys, lungs, liver join the degenerative process of joints;
- Felty's syndrome - against the background of the main symptom - joint pain - the spleen enlarges.
In childhood, they are diagnosed with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Symptoms at the onset of the disease are not very pronounced: the patient feels joint stiffness, more often in the morning.
Further, the symptoms increase:
- the pain gets worse;
- sweating increases;
- muscles are hypotrophied;
- The blood supply to the limbs is disrupted if you touch the feet and hands, they are much colder, for example, the shoulder or knee.
If you do not think about treatment, the joints begin to deform, the temperature rises. When complications appear, the cardio-respiratory system and kidneys are involved in the pathological process.
The reasons for the onset of the disease include:
- autoimmune conditions;
- disruption of organic systems after infectious diseases;
- genetic predisposition;
- stress factors and emotional instability;
- allergic reactions;
- intoxication of the body - including when taking certain medications;
- hormonal changes;
In some cases, it is difficult to determine the cause of the disease.
Treatment begins when the following symptoms appear:
- swelling of the hand;
- the appearance of stiffness in the morning and soreness;
- the onset of pathological changes resembled ARVI;
- pain and stiffness appear periodically;
- muscles spasm;
- the joints of the fingers and wrists thicken, and the toes begin to deviate to the sides and so freeze;
- shortness of breath and a change in the timbre of the voice are possible.
The following symptoms may join: cold extremities, dry mouth, dry eyes - when you cry, tears are not emitted.
When such manifestations appear, an x-ray of the extremities and a biochemical blood test are prescribed - these are the main methods for diagnosing rheumatoid arthritis.
Rheumatoid factor is a marker of the disease. If this factor is absent, then the diagnosis is made - seronegative polyarthritis. This form of the disease is slow. When marker B is identified, the diagnosis is different - seropositive polyarthritis. This form of the inflammatory process is acute and, if untreated, can cause serious complications.
Rheumatoid arthritis - treatment, drugs and procedures
Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis is complex, it is aimed at getting rid of the main symptom - pain, stopping the disease, eliminating its causes and restoring the functions of the joints. If therapy is started on time, disability can be avoided.
The therapeutic scheme includes:
- pain relievers - non-steroidal preparations of complex action in the form of tablets or injections with an anti-inflammatory effect;
- if the symptoms - swelling and deformation of the joints - are pronounced, corticosteroids are injected into the cavity, which allows you to quickly stop the inflammation;
- when an infectious etiology of the disease is detected, antibiotics are prescribed;
- when there is a suspicion that rheumatoid arthritis has appeared against the background of an autoimmune reaction of the body, plasmapheresis is prescribed.
Drugs that are specifically designed to treat RA may be prescribed.
Basic therapy includes:
- Cytostatics are means aimed at blocking mitotic activity, suppressing pathological cell division; are prescribed for neoplasms and autoimmune diseases: Chlorbutin, Methotrelaxat, Cyclophosphamide.
- Sulfonamides - "Salazopyridazine", "Sulfalazine"
- Gold preparations that change the function and morphology of macrophages, as a result of which they stop attacking their own defense system - "Tauredon", "Auranofin".
- Medicines of the quinoline series used for the treatment of malaria - "Delagil", "Plaquenil".
Treatment with basic drugs is complex, the doctor prescribes one or more drugs, assessing the severity of the symptoms of the underlying disease.
Currently, anti-cytokine therapy is prescribed for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and prevention of joint damage - "Remicade", "Adalimumab", "Infliximab". These remedies eliminate the symptoms of RA within 1 to 2 months. Despite the fact that recovery occurs quickly enough, WHO has determined special conditions for the use of drugs of this group - only with a reactive form of the disease, since the side effect is quite severe: reactivation of latent tuberculosis may occur.
If it is not possible to get rid of the symptoms of the disease within 3-4 months, then the repeated injection of hormonal agents into the joint cavity is used. In most cases, osteoporosis is associated with rheumatoid arthritis. To stop the degeneration of the skeletal system, a special diet is recommended: foods high in calcium. If this therapeutic measure is not enough, patients are prescribed calcium in tablet form in combination with vitamin D.
To restore the function of the joints, the treatment is supplemented with:
- Exercise therapy;
- physiotherapeutic procedures - phonophoresis, applications with Dimexide, electrophoresis.
If RP develops against the background of arthritis or with pronounced deformities of the joints, surgical treatment is necessary.
Traditional medicine offers the following recipes from the RP.
- Ointment for joints: mix the yolk of 1 egg, a teaspoon of apple cider vinegar and turpentine. Store in the refrigerator, lubricate the problem area overnight.
- A compress of grated raw potatoes is also placed overnight. Before applying to a sore spot, it is wrapped in a gauze napkin and immersed in boiling water for a couple of minutes.
- Vinegar Compress - Vinegar is diluted in half with water.
- Rubbing for joints: half a glass of black radish juice is mixed with 2 tablespoons of vodka, add 3 tablespoons of honey and a teaspoon of table salt. Achieve complete uniformity, lubricate sore spots before bedtime
Folk remedies only help to eliminate painful sensations in rheumatoid arthritis. For the treatment of the disease, it is necessary to use medications and therapeutic procedures. In the case of late treatment, disability occurs in 50% of patients.