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2023 Author: Alfred Shackley | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-05-21 13:14
Endoprosthetics of a joint is essentially an operation, which is the replacement of a diseased or injured joint with a special prosthesis. The procedure is complex and has its own indications and contraindications. Therefore, you need to inspect all aspects of this procedure.
Why is a prosthesis needed?
The reasons why it is necessary to replace a joint are joint diseases, leg injuries.
The most common reasons for hip replacement are:
- The defeat of the arthrosis of the hip joint. This disease is characterized by damage to the cartilage tissue in the joint, due to which there is an increase in pain, inflammation, swelling, as well as an inevitable decrease in mobility and deformation of the joint. Arthrosis of the hip joint has its "own" name - coxarthrosis, and occurs most often in people of retirement age.
- Fracture of the femoral neck or fracture of the femoral neck. The fracture of this part of the hip joint grows together and everything returns to normal, but, unfortunately, recovery in people of retirement age is not so easy. For this group of patients with a fracture of the femur, in order to save their lives and put them on their feet, most often they have to put a prosthesis.
- Diseases that are inflammatory in nature are arthritis. A prosthesis is a reasonable solution for an autoimmune disease, when the body's immune system considers its cells, in this case, the cells of the articular tissues, as foreign and destroys them.
- Replacement may be needed if the development of the musculoskeletal system did not go well at the appropriate age, and because of this, the patient is unable to move normally.
- Osteonecrosis is one of the reasons for hip replacement. This disease is characterized by bone necrosis of the femoral head in a specific area.
When other treatment fails to return the normal, former functionality of the hip joint, surgery is performed. Also, this surgical procedure often helps to prevent disability.
Surgical intervention will not be possible under the following circumstances:
- Problems with blood vessels and heart.
- Purulent tissue lesions: tonsillitis, dental caries, sinusitis or otitis media, abscesses on the skin.
- Mental and neuromuscular health disorders.
- Infection, open or latent, in the joint area.
- The age at which the development of the human skeleton has not yet been completed.
- Diseases of a somatic nature.
- Liver failure.
Given these indicators, diagnosis before a surgical procedure is an important step.
How does the replacement take place?
Before the most important part, the operation, passes, the patient goes through several stages of preparation.
Of course, doctors will first perform diagnostic procedures: examination, X-rays, blood tests, MRI of the leg, CT of the leg.
Further, there are certain "rules" that the patient must follow:
- If the patient is overweight, he must get rid of it.
- You need to stop taking certain medications - anti-inflammatory medications, blood thinners.
- It is possible to donate blood before surgery. In the process, the patient is likely to lose some of the blood, and it can be replenished with his own blood.
- The doctor must know about an increase in body temperature or the first signs of a cold.
- Quit smoking.
- On the evening before the operation, you can not eat anything after 7 pm, do not drink liquid after midnight.
Endoprosthetics are performed under general anesthesia. The operation takes approximately 3 hours. The surgeon makes one or two incisions, using special instruments that are inserted into these incisions. The incision is made on the outside of the thigh, the tendons and muscles are retracted slightly to the side.
Through the hole, the surgeon removes the damaged bones of the hip joint. Then healthy bones are prepared for the prosthesis.
The replacement is fixed with bone cement. Then the incision is closed. Recovery after surgery will take about 6 weeks.
During this time, the patient fully restores his physical activity. But at first, the operated person will walk on crutches.
It is important to prepare the house for the patient's arrival: install handrails on the railing, walls, install handles for lifting the toilet lid or shower hose, it is recommended to remove the rugs from the floor, place all the necessary items nearby, since it is necessary to minimize the number of bends and bends.
Hip arthroplasty is a shock for the body, which has to get used to the new bio-insert of the musculoskeletal system. In order for the functions of the leg to recover, there were no defects or the effect of an improperly fused bone, which could lead to disability, it is necessary to follow the rules of the postoperative period, that is, rehabilitation must be under the supervision of doctors.
The area where the soft tissue incision was made must be kept clean and dry. It is imperative to ask your doctor when you can take a shower or bath.
Working with a physiotherapist is the main recovery after surgery. Indeed, at this time it is necessary to "teach" the joint again the correct positions, so that all functions are performed without pain.
Rehabilitation takes place not only with physical therapy, but with some medications. Recovery after surgery involves the administration of intravenous fluids and antibiotics. Intravenous fluid administration after surgery is very important, as it is necessary to restore the water-salt balance of the whole body.
The patient will also have to endure some types of drainage that drain fluids from the wound after surgery. According to certain characteristics of the fluid from the wound, doctors determine the state of healing.
Pain medications after surgery are administered according to the patient's condition and relative to the level of pain. Analgesics can cause nausea or vomiting, and appropriate medication must also be taken to prevent this.
The patients' troubling question is when can you eat after surgery? Most often, after anesthesia, the patient is not hungry, but there are no special indications for food intake. If there are no additional contraindications, then the patient can eat solid food by the evening of the operation day.
During the day after surgery, you may feel nausea - this will go away. But you can tell the nurse about this, she will inject the medicine to make you feel better. To prevent nausea from appearing at all, you need to eat and drink after the operation in small portions and small sips.
You can take a shower, but close the seams. But after removing the stitches, you can take a shower as usual. The stitches are removed after 10 days or after 2 weeks. Postoperative pain is controlled by analgesics, so patients are not particularly concerned about this.
The most important thing during such periods is the hope for a speedy recovery and support of loved ones at the ward. Every patient wants to feel safe and wake up after surgery with his family - the best feeling.