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2023 Author: Alfred Shackley | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-05-21 13:14
The human musculoskeletal system is a complex structure in which hard and soft tissues are connected. Due to a poorly developed muscle corset and a sedentary lifestyle, the risk of injury increases.
Ankle dislocation is one of the most common injuries. How to determine if a dislocation has occurred and to what extent? Let's look at everything in order.
Ankle dislocations are classified by severity and cause.
So, according to the first criterion, it can happen:
- incomplete (partial) ligament rupture. In such cases, the peroneal muscles are damaged, less often the injury can affect the deltoid, tibiofibular muscles.
- Tearing of the muscles of the ankle joint is strong. With a given degree of injury, the patient practically does not lose mobility in this place, but the limb swells. If you touch the swollen area, pain occurs. Often, redness is visible at the site of damage, as blood accumulates.
- Complete rupture of the ankle ligaments. The patient cannot step on the leg, severe swelling of the ankle.
According to the second criterion, trauma is classified into the following types:
- acquired. This category includes post-traumatic, pathological, paralytic causes of ankle dislocation.
- Congenital pathology.
Many people can imagine a dislocation of the ankle joint in different ways, because we all once twisted our leg when walking, when the usual outcome was obtained: the leg could hurt slightly, without a tumor, and after a while you can walk and forget about the incident. But in reality, everything looks a little different.
To be sure, you need to call a doctor, but knowing the symptoms of dislocation will not be superfluous:
- Acute pain syndrome. The pain increases significantly if you touch the sore spot. An important point - the pain may not appear immediately or be very weak, as if there is no dislocation at all. But, after a while, the pain will intensify.
- Loss of ankle mobility without pain.
- The patient cannot stand on his leg because of the pain.
- Swelling and swelling in the area of injury. When an injury occurs, the patient often remembers the crackle, look for a click.
- A bruise that extends over the entire foot.
The symptoms are fairly common. In any case, in case of pain or less discomfort, the leg should be shown to a specialist who will diagnose it.
Causes of ankle dislocation
The cause of injury to this joint is movement, which can be anything. It is important to keep track of where and how you are going to step.
So, the possible and most likely reasons for getting a dislocation:
- Turn, inadvertently leaning on the foot.
- Fall of the patient.
- Landing after jumping on an uneven surface, careless jump.
Factors that increase the risk of possible dislocation:
- The arch of the foot in humans is high.
- Without moderate training, weakened ligaments that lose their elasticity and strength with age.
- Poor development of peroneal muscles.
- Small sprain.
- Neuromuscular disorders.
- Disturbed positioning of the foot when walking (develops at an early age, when a person is just learning to walk).
Also, doctors note that some factors contribute to the weakening of the ligaments, a decrease in bone density, and increase the load on the joint:
- Disturbed metabolic process (diabetes mellitus), overweight.
- Arthrosis and osteomyelitis.
- Inflammatory processes in muscle tissues.
- Pathologies that a person received from birth.
Treating the problem
Treatment begins with an ambulance call. You cannot try to go to the hospital or home on your own, enduring pain. It is necessary to immobilize the joint and wait for the doctors. If the patient tries to walk, he can aggravate the condition of the joint, since physical exertion can tear the ligaments more.
Shoes and socks must be removed prior to the arrival of the doctor. This is done so that the resulting edema is not squeezed. If possible, place your foot on a soft surface such as a pillow or thick scarf. Do not move the joint or limb in general.
As soon as you feel the symptoms, but the pain has not yet "reached", it is worth stopping and taking action. Even if you are sure that the dislocation is insignificant and "so it will pass." Irresponsibility can take a lot of damage to your leg.
At home, treatment can be done with ice or an alternative. After 3 days after the injury, a warming ointment or compresses can be used (with the permission of the doctor). Preparations need to take specialized ointments or gels for bruises. Medications will relieve most of the pain, warm up tissues, and relieve swelling.
If the position of the bones in the joint is disturbed, reduction of the joint will be necessary. In no case should it be carried out at home with the help of loved ones! This procedure is very responsible and complex, it should only be carried out by an experienced specialist. For the reduction, doctors use local anesthesia. X-rays are taken before and after the dislocation is reduced. Sometimes it is necessary to make a small incision to set it.
If the procedure is successful, the patient is discharged approximately 5 days after the dislocation. By this time, the body produces recovery processes, edema and severe pain disappear.
If the pain is severe and the patient cannot stand, then treatment at home before the arrival of an ambulance can be extended to taking ketanov or ibuprofen (analgesics).
Doctors can advise some recipes with which treatment can be carried out at home:
- Foot bath. Not too hot water is diluted with herbal infusions. Celandine and calendula are excellent for treating joint problems.
- Home compress: equal parts dry soap, ammonia, oil and camphor. Stir and apply for 15 minutes. The smell will be specific.
- Ankle wrap with healing clay.
- Treatment with grated potatoes. Apply for an hour.
After a dislocation, measures are needed to strengthen the ligaments and prevent possible dislocation in the future. Doctors prescribe a course of physiotherapy exercises.
Exercise therapy includes:
- Exercise for the development of active movement of the toes.
- Exercise-roll from heel to toe and in the opposite direction.
- Rolling the foot of a bottle or something similar.
- Exercise bike.
Treatment ends when the symptoms completely subside and the doctor allows the patient to run and jump. By this time, the muscles and ligaments of the diseased and healthy legs should be restored and strengthened as much as possible. With minor injuries, this will take about a month, with complex ones - 3-4 months.
To avoid dislocation, walk carefully and wear comfortable, stable shoes. Follow the technique when performing various exercises in sports. Pay attention to safety measures during training. Avoid or cross a slippery surface with particular vigilance.