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2023 Author: Alfred Shackley | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-05-21 13:14
Dermatitis of the scalp is a skin disease that occurs under the influence of negative factors: biological, chemical, physical.
The disease most often appears due to poor-quality care products: shampoos, varnishes, gels, paints. Running water does not in the best way affect the condition of the skin.
Dermatitis on the head
The disease affects both children and adults. Microorganisms are always present on the surface of the body. They do not harm until they are imbalanced. As a result of the activation of some and the suppression of others, inflammation develops. Most often, the ailment provokes the activation of fungi, more precisely - Malassezia furfur.
The number of fungi easily increases with thyroid dysfunction, diabetes, other hormonal pathologies, as well as with disruptions in the gastrointestinal tract. The increased reproduction of fungi causes seborrhea.
Seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp
This form is the most common.
Its cause is the excessive production of sebum by the sebaceous glands. This can happen due to metabolic disorders, hereditary predisposition, negative external influences.
The culprit of seborrhea is the aforementioned fungus Malassezia furfur. It belongs to conditionally pathogenic and is activated with excessive secretion of sebum and a change in the composition of the latter. It usually affects the scalp. But seborrheic dermatitis can be localized in other parts of the body, where there are many sebaceous glands: on the face, chest, back.
- small yellow-pink rash;
- soreness is sometimes present;
If you scratch the rash, you can bring in an infection, then the course of the disease is aggravated, and the nature of the treatment changes: it is required to use antibiotics.
Seborrhea can be complicated by a violation of the gastrointestinal tract. For example, in an infant, this is likely when switching to artificial feeding.
Atopic dermatitis of the scalp
This form of the disease is chronic, with periods of remission and relapse. An illness that appears in a child rarely goes away in adulthood.
Genetic predisposition plays an important role in the development of this form of the disease. But it manifests itself only under the influence of provoking factors, in this case - food, household and industrial allergens. Sharp temperature changes and high air humidity can become provocateurs.
Atopic dermatitis, if there are prerequisites, appears in the first year of life. The first symptoms are rashes on the face, limbs and buttocks, accompanied by severe itching. The disease is exacerbated by sudden changes in temperature, teething, malnutrition, colds.
In a child 3-7 years old, the symptoms differ slightly:
- the rash is brighter;
- severe itching;
- scratching that does not cause pain;
- localization of rashes - neck, inner side of elbows, popliteal caps;
- dry skin around the mouth, cracked lips.
Symptoms of atopic dermatitis in adults:
- peeling of the skin;
- small papules;
- the intensity of the itching fluctuates;
- against the background of the disease, allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma, and intestinal dysbiosis may develop.
How is scalp dermatitis treated?
The disease requires an integrated approach: it is necessary to eliminate not only the symptoms, but also the cause of the disease. A responsible approach will quickly get rid of discomfort and prevent relapse.
The complex of treatment includes diet (limitation of spicy, sweet, fatty) and exclusion of the effects of cold, as well as maximum avoidance of stress.
Systemic drugs (for oral administration):
- B vitamins, calcium preparations - injected intramuscularly (injections);
- antihistamines - designed to quickly relieve symptoms such as itching and inflammation. For example, "Loratadin", "Cetirizine", "Chloropyramine", "Ebastin", "Akrivastin";
- antimycotics (antifungal) - only for severe seborrhea. It can be Nizoral, Itraconazole, Ketoconazole, Fluconazole;
- glucocorticosteroids, in particular prednisolone - for relief of the symptom of generalized dermatitis (with damage to a significant part of the skin);
- antibiotics - with secondary infection with bacteria. They can prescribe "Suprax", "Ceftriaxone", "Ciprofloxacin", "Cefazolin", "Azithromycin", "Levofloxacin".
Means for external use
These are also an integral part of therapy for skin lesions.
The following can be assigned:
- antimycotics: shampoos (Friderm-zinc, Nizoral, with tar or ketoconazole), creams (Clotrimazole, Mikospor, Travogen, Curiosin, Ketoconazole 2%, Dactarin, Pevaril "," Lamisil "," Batrafen "), gels (" Cyclopirox ");
- local corticosteroids for severe dermatitis. It can be hydrocortisone ointment, "Triamcinolone", "Mometasone", "Alcomethasone", "Betamethasone", "Pimafukort", "Triderm";
- keratolytic drugs: "Resorcinol", "Kertiol", ichthyol, tar, sulfuric ointment, formulations with salicylic acid;
- keratolytic shampoos: "Fitosilic", "Fitoretard", "Kerium-intensive";
- with secondary bacterial infection: "Fucidin", "Bactroban", "Baneocin";
- for dry form of seborrhea: creams "Friederm-zinc" and "Kerium", shampoo "Nizoral";
- with eyelid dermatitis: ophthalmic preparations with phenylephrine, sulfacetamide, prednisolone;
- during remission: wash body and hair with neutral pH products.
The doctor may recommend a number of treatments to improve nutrition and normalize metabolic processes in skin cells.
What procedures are used:
- cryomassage - improves blood flow rate, strengthens the walls of blood vessels, relieves inflammation;
- darsonvalization - used to dry the skin with an oily form of seborrheic dermatitis;
- electroneurostimulation - a procedure that stimulates hair follicles. It is prescribed only during the period of remission;
- ozone therapy - involves the subcutaneous administration of anti-inflammatory substances;
- MIL-therapy - allows you to get rid of skin lesions through exposure to infrared and pulsating red waves.
How to get rid of dermatitis using folk recipes?
The therapy can be supplemented with products based on medicinal plants.
You can use the following recipes:
- Mint. Pour a tablespoon of mint with a glass of boiling water, insist and filter. The resulting infusion is used to wipe the affected areas to get rid of itching and inflammation;
- Healing balm. Mix 1 tbsp in a water bath. l. honey, 2 tbsp. l. alcohol tincture of calendula, 4 tbsp. l. aloe juice, 1 tbsp. l. lemon juice, 2 drops of geranium essential oil. When the honey melts, the composition is removed from the heat and cooled. It is applied to the head, then wrapped around it with a plastic bag and a towel. The mask is kept for 40 minutes;
- Onion juice. Rub fresh juice into the head, wrap it with foil and a towel, leave for half an hour. After the procedure, a characteristic smell remains;
- Oak bark. About 30 g of chopped bark is poured into a third cup of boiling water, a spoonful of honey is added and left for several hours. After straining, the infusion is rubbed into the skin, and if necessary, the face and body are treated with it. The procedure is carried out every day. The course of treatment is 2 weeks;
- Alcohol tincture of St. John's wort. The dry plant is mixed with alcohol in the amount of 100 g and ½ l, respectively, and left for 7 days. Before use, the tincture is diluted with boiled water in a ratio of 1 to 1. It is used for lotions;
- Ointment for seborrhea. You need to chop 5 cloves of garlic, 100 g of fresh nettle and 1 tbsp.l. flax oil. The resulting composition treats problem areas of the skin and leave for a maximum of 20 minutes;
- Dandelion juice. Folk healers advise drinking a spoonful of fresh juice every day, diluting it with a small amount of water;
- Mix plantain juice with petroleum jelly to get a creamy consistency. They are treated with the scalp for 7 days in a row.
In the future, it is recommended to wash your hair with an antifungal shampoo once a month for prophylaxis. With atopic, it is necessary to limit contact with irritating substances.
You need to monitor hygiene more carefully, as well as adjust the diet by adding more healthy products to it.