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2023 Author: Alfred Shackley | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-05-21 13:14
A runny nose in a child (rhinitis) is a pathological condition of the body associated with inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose and paranasal sinuses. An unpleasant problem occurs in children from the first days of life and can be provoked not only by bacterial or viral infections, but also by exogenous causes.
To eliminate rhinitis in a child in the first few years of life, sparing drugs should be used that are unable to cause allergies and side effects.
What is rhinitis?
A runny nose is a symptom that can be one of the manifestations of an infectious disease.
Before resorting to its treatment, it is advisable to accurately determine the cause of the inflammation. Rhinitis can be both infectious, i.e. provoked by pathogenic pathogens, and non-infectious.
By itself, snot does not pose a particular threat to the health of the child. But, as a rule, they appear against the background of inflammatory processes in the ENT organs. In the absence of adequate treatment, the pathogenic flora from the nose can descend into the lower respiratory tract and provoke a complication.
Within a few hours after the entry of pathogens into the nasal cavity, the following symptoms may appear:
- complicated nasal breathing;
- swelling of the nasal mucous membranes;
- temperature increase;
- loss of smell;
- snot and itching in the nose;
- irritation of the skin near the wings of the nose.
All of the above symptoms signal the appearance of a runny nose in a child. As a rule, the appearance of snot often occurs against the background of the development of rhinopharyngitis. In other words, the inflammatory process is observed not only in the nasal cavity, but also in the pharynx. This is evidenced by a sore throat and tingling sensation, severe coughing fits.
The causes of rhinitis
Why does the child have a runny nose?
The occurrence of an inflammatory process in the nasopharynx is often associated with the following reasons:
- weakening of the immune defense;
- anemia and hypovitaminosis;
- pathology of the nasal septum;
- allergic reaction;
- the development of infectious ailments;
- overgrowth of polyps.
Pediatricians note a number of provoking factors that affect the reactivity of the body, i.e. its ability to resist pathogens:
- improper nutrition;
- drug abuse;
- exposure to allergens (dust, animal hair);
- lack of treatment in the presence of infectious diseases.
In the process of treating a cold in a child, it is necessary to eliminate not only unpleasant symptoms, but also the reasons that provoked their appearance.
Varieties of rhinitis
There are several types of rhinitis that can occur in a child.
Pediatricians include the main types of rhinitis:
- Acute - often occurs against the background of the development of pathogenic bacteria and viruses. If untreated, especially in babies under the age of 2 years, inflammation of the nasopharynx can provoke complications: otitis media, tracheobronchitis and pneumonia;
- Chronic - appears due to the addition of a bacterial infection to a viral disease. A sluggish rhinitis does not have the pronounced symptoms that are observed in acute rhinitis. During the day, the child may alternately experience congestion of one or the other of the nostrils;
- Allergic - a consequence of an allergic reaction to irritating factors: dust, food, medicines, etc. As a rule, allergic rhinitis is a seasonal phenomenon, which is accompanied by severe lacrimation;
- Vasomotor - observed in infants and toddlers up to 1-2 years old. The appearance of snot is associated with impaired vascular tone and malfunctioning of the immune system.
It is necessary to treat a child in each specific case in different ways. Since chronic inflammation often occurs against the background of bacterial growth, antibacterial drugs will be required to eliminate it. In turn, an acute illness in 85% of cases is provoked by viruses, therefore, in this case, it is necessary to treat the baby exclusively with antiviral agents.
What pharmaceutical remedies can eliminate a runny nose in a baby?
Depending on the etiology, medicines of the following groups can be used to combat an unpleasant symptom:
- Vasoconstrictor. This category of drugs helps to reduce vascular permeability, due to which it is possible to reduce the swelling of the nasal mucosa. As a result, nasal breathing is facilitated, and concomitant symptoms are eliminated: lacrimation, headaches, etc.;
- Antiviral. They fight against pathogenic viruses that develop on the mucous epithelium lining the nasopharynx. Thanks to this, it is possible to eliminate not only snot, but also the main reason for their appearance;
- Antimicrobial. They inhibit the activity of pathogenic bacteria, the development of which leads to hypersecretion of mucus in the nasal cavity;
- Antihistamines. They reduce the sensitivity of allergic receptors, which helps to eliminate swelling, inflammation and snot in the child's nose.
Before treating a baby, you need to consult a pediatrician. He will be able to accurately determine the cause of the onset of the disease, due to which the correct way to resolve the issue with the use of a specific group of medicines will be outlined.
Top 5 best remedies for rhinitis
In many ways, the principle of treating inflammation in the nasopharynx depends on the etiology of the disease and the age of the child. It is not recommended to give drugs with a high concentration of potent substances to babies under the age of 4-5 years. In 90% of cases, this causes side effects and an allergic reaction, which only worsens the health of the baby.
How can a runny nose be cured?
To combat unpleasant symptoms in preschool children, it is more advisable to use the following nasal drops:
- Aqua Maris. The droplets contain refined sea salt with a set of essential microelements. They can be used to eliminate vasomotor and acute rhinitis in babies from the first days of life. "Aqua Maris" relieves puffiness in the nose, which facilitates nasal breathing;
- Aqualor Baby. The nasal drops contain isotonic sea salt, as well as zinc, selenium and sodium. Thanks to this set of components, the medicine acquires anti-inflammatory properties, which helps to eliminate acute and lingering rhinitis in infants;
- Otrivin Baby. The droplets contain saline and trace elements that have a beneficial effect on the immune system. The medicine allows not only to eliminate a severe runny nose, but also to prevent relapses;
- "Nazol Baby". The vasoconstrictor contains phenylephrinth, which helps to clear the nasal cavity of viscous secretions. For babies under 2 years old, it can be used no longer than 3-4 days, since the drug can provoke irritation of the mucous membrane;
- "Vibrocil". Good anti-inflammatory drops with vasoconstrictor action, which contain dimethindene and lavender oil. The drug effectively fights against chronic and acute rhinitis in children from one year old.
Effective folk remedies
If a child has snot constantly flowing, folk remedies will help to cope with them. According to phytotherapists, solutions made from natural products are much less likely to cause adverse reactions. So what are the most effective remedies for rhinitis?
- Chopped onions need to be sautéed in a pan for several minutes until juice appears;
- After that, the onion gruel is mixed with a small amount of sunflower oil;
- The mixture is insisted throughout the day, after which it is filtered;
- The prepared solution is instilled in 1 drop into each nostril two to three times a day.
- Kalanchoe needs to be chopped in a blender or with a grater;
- Juice is squeezed out of the gruel through cheesecloth;
- The prepared product is instilled 5 drops into each nostril twice a day.
- With the help of a garlic, juice is extracted from 5-6 cloves of garlic;
- Garlic juice is mixed with 1 tsp. olive oil;
- The oily composition is instilled into the nose in 2-3 drops.
A runny nose is an unpleasant symptom that in most cases occurs against the background of the development of an infectious disease.
To eliminate snot in babies, sparing nasal drops based on saline and sea salt with a content of useful microelements are used. Folk remedies made from onion and garlic juice will be no less effective.